The Russian BRADOS experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was aimed at developing methods in radiation dosimetry and radiobiology to improve the reliability of risk estimates for the radiation environment in low-Earth orbit. Experimental data from thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) gathered during the BRADOS-1 (24 February–31 October 2001) mission are reviewed and convolved to obtain absorbed dose and dose equivalent from primary and secondary cosmic-ray particles. Absorbed dose rates in the ISS Russian Segment (Zvezda) ranged from 208 ± 14 to 275 ± 14 μ Gy d – 1 . Dose equivalent rates were determined to range from 438 ± 29 to 536 ± 32 μ Sv d – 1 , indicating a quality factor between 1.95 ± 0.15 and 2.11 ± 0.20 . The contribution of densely ionizing particles ( LET ⩾ 10 keV μ m – 1 ) to dose equivalent made up between 54% and 64%.
Component Repair Experiment-1: An Experiment Evaluating Electronic Component-Level Repair During Spaceflight
The Component Repair Experiment-1 (CRE-1) examines the capability for astronauts to perform electronics repair tasks in space. The goal is to determine the current capabilities and limits for the crew, and to make recommendations to improve and expand the range of work that astronauts may perform. CRE-1 provided two-layer, functional circuit boards and replacement components, a small tool kit, written and video training materials, and 1 hr of hands on training for the crew slated to perform the experiment approximately 7 months prior to the mission. Astronauts Michael Fincke and Sandra Magnus performed the work aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in February and March 2009. The astronauts were able to remove and replace components successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of performing component-level electronics repairs within a spacecraft. Several unsuccessful tasks demonstrated areas in need of improvement. These include improved and longer training prior to a mission, an improved soldering iron with a higher operating temperature and steady power source, video training and practice boards for refresher work or practice before a repair, and improved and varied hand tools and containment system.
Radiation measurements of surface and deep organ doses were performed aboard the International Space Station, for the period of January 2006 to April 2007, using a MOSFET dosimetry system combined with the Matroshka-R spherical phantom. The averaged internal and surface dose rates are found to be 0.19 and 0.29 mGy d(-1), respectively. The levels of radiation dose to blood-forming organs (BFO) and to surface organs are compared with recommended safe limits. The maximum measured BFO dose has an average dose rate of 0.23 mGy d(-1) (84 mGy y(-1)), corresponding to 44 % of the recommended annual limit of 0.5 Sv, for a space radiation quality factor of 2.6. The annual surface dose is found to be higher at 126 mGy, corresponding to 16 % of the eye dose limit and to 11 % of the skin dose limit. Doses calculated using the Spenvis software showed deviations of up to 37 % from measurements.
A sensor system for detecting and estimating concentrations of various gas or liquid analytes. In an embodiment, the resistances of a set of sensors are measured to provide a set of responses over time where the resistances are indicative of gas or liquid sorption, depending upon the sensors. A concentration vector for the analytes is estimated by satisfying a criterion of goodness using the set of responses. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
After the launch to the ISS (International Space Station) with The Space Shuttle flight STS 118 13A.1 on August 9th 2007 and the accommodation in the US lab Destiny, the air quality monitor ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) has been successfully put into operation. ANITA is a technology demonstrator flight experiment being able to continuously monitor with high time resolution the air conditions within the crewed cabins of the ISS. The system has its origin in a long term ESA technology development programme. The ANITA mission itself is an ESA-NASA cooperative project. ESA is responsible for the provision of the HW, the data acquisition and data evaluation. NASA’s responsibilities are launch, accommodation in the US Lab Destiny, operation and data download.The ANITA air analyser is currently calibrated to detect and quantify online and with high time resolution 33 gases simultaneously with down to sub-ppm detection limits. In addition the system has automatic warning capabilities covering possible malfunctions, surprising gases, and gas concentrations above preset limits. – However, owing to the experimental character of this ANITA mission, no measurement results are on-line visible to the crew.ANITA’s standard, fully automatic mode of operation applies direct air sampling in front of the system. Whenever wanted, air samples for automatic analyses can be taken from any human-accessible position in the ISS or any connected spacecraft and fed to ANITA, applying gas bags and a hand pump.ANITA is an on-orbit test experiment and a precursor for a permanent continuous trace gas monitoring system on the ISS – ANITA II. It further represents a precursor system for future air monitoring in crewed vehicles being developed for the Human Space Exploration programme.This paper is part 2 in a series of two papers. The first paper describes the HW and the ANITA mission itself. This paper is dedicated to the data analysis, including the handling of special challenges and some measurement results.On the ISS, ANITA has measured several gases that, before now, have never properly been measured before, including one unexpected gas. And many gases have for the first time been measured with high time resolution. The observed gas dynamics clearly show effects from spacecraft visits to the ISS, crew activities, the number of crew present, and the functioning of the air revitalisation systems. ANITA gives detailed time-resolved information on very different gases such as carbon dioxide and monoxide, methane, ammonia, perfluoro propane, sulphur hexafluoride, siloxanes, and alcohols.It was also demonstrated how ANITA was used to detect and quantify an unexpected gas in the ISS air, and how the system calibration could be updated from ground.The work described has been performed under contract of the European Space Agency.
ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station).For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics, with high time resolution, in a spacecraft atmosphere.ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarises the results of ANITA’s air analyses and compares results to other measurements acquired on ISS during the operational period. The main basis of comparison is NASA’s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) and GC/MS (Mass Spectrometry) systems. Comparison with other real-time instruments aboard ISS included the Volatile Organic Analyzer (VOA), the Compound Specific Analyzer – Combustion Products (CSA-CP), the Carbon Dioxide Monitor (CDM), and the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA).
Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.
LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a new system for microbial monitoring aboard the International Space Station (ISS)
Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and β-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of the microbial ecology on the ISS.
The reflectance data and optical properties before and after flight were demonstrated in order to evaluate the long-term durability of the cermet coating in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coating proved to be quite durable over the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 6 mission. The optical properties of the titanium aluminum oxide cermet coating were evaluated in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared before flight using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda-19 spectrophotometer. The air mass zero solar spectrums was used to convolute the reflectance data into solar absorptance α, and the uncertainty is estimated to be ±0.005. Spectral reflectance data obtained before and after flight revealed essentially no change in the optical properties of solar absorptance and infrared emittance upon low-Earth-orbit exposure, consistent with ground laboratory evaluation of similar cermet coatings.
NASA designed and operated the Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS), Increment 23/24, during May 2010. This hardware was a demonstration experiment to generate intravenous (IV) fluid from ISS Water Processing Assembly (WPA) potable water using a water purification technique and pharmaceutical mixing system. The IVGEN experiment utilizes a deionizing resin bed to remove contaminants from feedstock water to a purity level that meets the standards of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the governing body for pharmaceuticals in the United States. The water was then introduced into an IV bag where the fluid was mixed with USP-grade crystalline salt to produce USP normal saline (NS). Inline conductivity sensors quantified the feedstock water quality, output water purity, and NS mixing uniformity. Six 1.5-L bags of purified water were produced. Two of these bags were mixed with sodium chloride to make 0.9 percent NS solution. These two bags were returned to Earth to test for compliance with USP requirements. On-orbit results indicated that all of the experimental success criteria were met with the exception of the salt concentration. Problems with a large air bubble in the first bag of purified water resulted in a slightly concentrated saline solution of 117 percent of the target value of 0.9 g/L. The second bag had an inadequate amount of salt premeasured into the mixing bag resulting in a slightly deficient salt concentration of 93.8 percent of the target value. The USP permits a range from 95 to 105 percent of the target value. The testing plans for improvements for an operational system are also presented.