Publications Resulting from CASIS-Sponsored Projects
Below, explore published research articles and book chapters that result from and acknowledge CASIS sponsorship of ISS National Lab R&D. For a more extensive list of spaceflight-related publications (not limited to CASIS sponsorship), see our ISS research publication database or International Space Station Research Results Citations on the NASA website.
Hourly turbidity monitoring using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager fluorescence bands
Citation: Amin R, Shulman I. Hourly Turbidity Monitoring using Geostationary Ocean Color Imager Fluorescence Bands. J Appl Remote Sens. 2015;9(1):096024-096024.
Publication Date: 8/4/15
Description: The Geostationary Ocean Color imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color satellite sensor that collects hourly images eight times per day during daylight. This high fre-quency image acquisition makes it possible to study more detailed dynamics of red tide blooms, sediment plumes, and colored dissolved organic matter plumes, and can aid in the prediction of biophysical phenomena. We apply the red band difference and the fluorescence line height algo-rithms to GOCI imagery to separate waters with high algal and nonalgal particles and validate the results with the MODIS imagery. We also track optical features using hourly GOCI imagery and assess their movement through comparisons with predicted ocean currents derived from the navy coastal ocean model and tidal data.
Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation
Citation: Hughes-Fulford M, Chang T, Martinez E, Li C. Spaceflight Alters Expression of MicroRNA during T-cell Activation. FASEB J. 2015;29(12):4893-4900.
Publication Date: 8/14/15
Description: Altered immune function has been demon- strated in astronauts during space ?ights dating back to Apollo and Skylab;this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration.We tested the hypothesis that space ?ight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the In-ternational Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was signi?cantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was con?rmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the ?rst report that space ?ight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed signi?cant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically con?rmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21.
A Spheroid Toxicity Assay Using Magnetic 3D Bioprinting & Realtime Mobile Device-based Imaging
Citation: Tseng H, Gage JA, Shen T, Haisler WL, Neeley SK, Shiao S, Chen J, Liao A, Hebel C, Raphael RM, Becker JL, Souza GR. A Spheroid Toxicity Assay Using Magnetic 3D Bioprinting and Real-time Mobile Device-based Imaging. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13987.
Publication Date: 9/14/15
Description: An ongoing challenge in biomedical research is the search for simple, yet robust assays using 3D cell cultures for toxicity screening. This study addresses that challenge with a novel spheroid assay, wherein spheroids, formed by magnetic 3D bioprinting, contract immediately as cells rearrange and compact the spheroid in relation to viability and cytoskeletal organization. Thus, spheroid size can be used as a simple metric for toxicity. The goal of this study was to validate spheroid contraction
SRC-2 orchestrates polygenic inputs for fine-tuning glucose homeostasis
Citation: Fleet T, Zhang Bin, Lin F, Zhu B, Dasgupta S, Stashi E, Tackett B, Thevananther S, Rajapakshe K, Gonzales N, Dean A, Mao J, Timchenko N, Malovannaya A, Qin J, Coarfa C, DeMayo F, Dacso Foulds C, O'Malley B and York B. SRC-2 Orchestrates Polygenic Inputs for Fine-Tuning Glucose Homeostasis. PNAS. 2015;112(44):E6068-E6077.
Publication Date: 9/30/15
Description: Despite extensive efforts to understand the monogenic contributions to perturbed glucose homeostasis, the complexity of genetic events that fractionally contribute to the spectrum of this pathology remain poorly understood. Proper maintenance of glucose homeostasis is the central feature of a constellation of comorbidities that define the metabolic syndrome. The ability of the liver to balance carbohydrate uptake and release during the feeding-to-fasting transition is essential to the regulation of peripheral glucose availability. The liver coordinates the expression of gene programs that control glucose absorption, storage, and secretion. Herein, we demonstrate that Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2 (SRC-2) orchestrates a hierarchy of nutritionally responsive transcriptional complexes to precisely modulate plasma glucose availability. Using DNA pull-down technology coupled with mass spectrometry, we have identified SRC-2 as an indispensable integrator of transcriptional complexes that control the rate-limiting steps of hepatic glucose release and accretion. Collectively, these findings position SRC-2 as a major regulator of polygenic inputs to metabolic gene regulation and perhaps identify a previously unappreciated model that helps to explain the clinical spectrum of glucose dysregulation.
Occurrence and Spatial Extent of HABs on the West Florida Shelf 2002-Present
Citation: Amin R, Penta B, deRada S. Occurence and Spatial Extent of HABs on West Florida Shelf 2002-Present. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 2015;12(10): 2080-2084.
Publication Date: 10/1/15
Description: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can lead to severe economic and ecological impacts in coastal areas and can threaten marine life and human health. About three quarters of these toxic blooms are caused by dinoflagellate species. One dinoflagellate species, i.e., Karenia brevis, blooms nearly every year in the Gulf of Mexico, particularly on the West Florida Shelf (WFS), where these blooms cause millions of dollars in socioeconomic damage. In this letter, we use the red band difference (RBD) bloom detection technique for detection of low backscattering phytoplankton blooms, such as K. brevis, and conduct time-series analyses of the spatial extent of these blooms using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) monthly mean data spanning July 2002 (sensor inception) to September 2014. The time-series results show that the RBD successfully detects the documented HABs in the region, illustrating the seasonal and interannual variability, including the extensive blooms of 2005 and 2014.
Comparative Analysis of GOCI Ocean Color Products
Citation: Amin R. Lewis MD, Lawson A, Gould Jr R.W, Martinolich P, Li RR, Ladner S, Gallegos S. Comparative Analysis of GOCI Ocean Color Products. Sensors. 2015;15(10):25703-25715.
Publication Date: 10/12/15
Description: The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) is the first geostationary ocean color sensor in orbit that provides bio-optical properties from coastal and open waters around the Korean Peninsula at unprecedented temporal resolution. In this study, we compare the normalized water-leaving radiance (nLw) products generated by the Naval Research Laboratory Automated Processing System (APS) with those produced by the stand-alone software package, the GOCI Data Processing System (GDPS), developed by the Korean Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI). Both results are then compared to the nLw measured by the above water radiometer at the Ieodo site. This above-water radiometer is part of the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AeroNET). The results indicate that the APS and GDPS processed nLw correlates well within the same image slot where the coefficient of determination (r2) is higher than 0.84 for all the bands from 412 nm to 745 nm. The agreement between APS and the AeroNET data is higher when compared to the GDPS results. The Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between AeroNET and APS data ranges from 0.24 2 [mW/(cm sr?m)] at 555 nm to 0.52 2 [mW/(cm sr?m)] at 412 nm while RMSE between AeroNET and GDPS data ranges from 0.47 2 [mW/(cm sr?m)] at 443 nm to 0.69 2 [mW/(cm sr?m)] at 490 nm.
Coactivator-Dependent Oscillation of Chromatin Accessibility Dictates Circadian Gene Amplitude via REV-ERB Loading
Citation: Zhu B, Gates LA, Stashi E, Dasgupta S, Gonzales N, Dean A, Dacso CC, York B, O'Malley BW. Coactivator-Dependent Oscillation of Chromatin Accessibility Dictates Circadian Gene Amplitude via REV-ERB Loading. Mol Cell. 2015;60(5):769-783.
Publication Date: 11/20/15
Description: A central mechanism for controlling circadian gene amplitude remains elusive. We present evidence for a ?facilitated repression (FR)? model that functions as an amplitude rheostat for circadian gene oscillation. We demonstrate that ROR and/or BMAL1 promote global chromatin decondensation during the activation phase of the circadian cycle to actively facilitate REV-ERB loading for repression of circadian gene expression. Mechanistically, we found that SRC-2 dictates global circadian chromatin remodeling through spatial and temporal recruitment of PBAF members of the SWI/SNF complex to facilitate loading of REV-ERB in the hepatic genome. Mathematical modeling highlights how the FR model sustains proper circadian rhythm despite fluctuations of REV-ERB levels. Our study not only reveals a mechanism for active communication between the positive and negative limbs of the circadian transcriptional loop but also establishes the concept that clock transcription factor binding dynamics is perhaps a central tenet for fine-tuning circadian rhythm.
The effect of spaceflight on the gravity-sensing auxin gradient of roots: GFP reporter gene microscopy on orbit
Citation: Ferl RJ, Paul A-L. The Effect of Spaceflight on the Gravity-Sensing Auxin Gradient of Roots: GFP Reporter Gene Microscopy on Orbit. npj Microgravity 2. 2016;15023.
Publication Date: 1/16/16
Description: Our primary aim was to determine whether gravity has a direct role in establishing the auxin-mediated gravity-sensing system in primary roots. Major plant architectures have long been thought to be guided by gravity, including the directional growth of the primary root via auxin gradients that are then disturbed when roots deviate from the vertical as a gravity sensor. However, experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) now allow physical clarity with regard to any assumptions regarding the role of gravity in establishing fundamental root auxin distributions. We examined the space?ight green ?uorescent protein (GFP)-reporter gene expression in roots of transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana: pDR5r::GFP, pTAA1::TAA1?GFP, pSCR::SCR?GFP to monitor auxin and pARR5::GFP to monitor cytokinin. Plants on the ISS were imaged live with the Light Microscopy Module (LMM), and compared with control plants imaged on the ground. Preserved space?ight and ground control plants were examined post ?ight with confocal microscopy. Plants on orbit, growing in the absence of any physical reference to the terrestrial gravity vector, displayed typically ?vertical? distribution of auxin in the primary root. This con?rms that the establishment of the auxin-gradient system, the primary guide for gravity signaling in the root, is gravity independent. The cytokinin distribution in the root tip differs between space?ight and the ground controls, suggesting space?ight-induced features of root growth may be cytokinin related. The distribution of auxin in the gravity-sensing portion of the root is not dependent on gravity. Space?ight appears benign to auxin and its role in the development of the primary root tip, whereas space?ight may in?uence cytokinin-associated processes.
The Effects of Thermal Precondition on Oncogenic and Intraspinal Cord Growth Features of Human Glioma Cells
Citation: Zeng X, Han I, Abd-El-Barr M, Anderson JE, Chi JH, Zafonte RD, Teng YD. The Effects of Thermal Precondition on Oncogenic and Intraspinal Cord Growth Features of Human Glioma Cells. Cell Transplant. 2016;25(12):2099-2109.
Publication Date: 5/4/16
Description: The adult rodent spinal cord presents an inhibitory environment for donor cell survival, impeding efficiency for xenograft-based modeling of gliomas. We postulated that mild thermal precondition may influence the fate of the implanted tumor cells. To test this hypothesis, high grade human astrocytoma G55 and U87 cells were cultured under 37°C and 38.5°C, to mimic regular experimental or core body temperature of rodents, respectively. In vitro, 38.5°C-conditioned cells, relative to 37°C, grew slightly faster. Comparing to U87, G55 demonstrated greater response to the temperature difference. Hyperthermal culture markedly increased production of HSP27 in most G55 but only promoted transient expression of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in a small cell subpopulation. We subsequently transplanted G55 cells following 37°C or 38.5°C culture into the C2 or T10 spinal cord of adult female immunodeficient rats (3 rats/each locus/per temperature; total: 12 rats). Systematical analyses revealed that 38.5°C-preconditioned G55 grew more malignantly at either C2 or T10 as determined by tumor size, outgrowth profile, resistance to bolus intratumor administration of 5-fluorouracil (0.1 micromole), and post-tumor survival (P < 0.05; n = 6/group). Therefore, thermal precondition of glioma cells may be an effective way to influence the in vitro and in vivo oncological contour of glioma cells. Future studies are needed for assessing potential oncogenic modifying effect of hyperthermia regimens on glioma cells.
Guidelines for Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Analysis of Trabecular Bone-Rich Regions in Mice: Improved Precision, Accuracy, and Sensitivity for Assessing Longitudinal Bone Changes
Citation: Shi J, Lee S, Uyeda M, Tanjaya J, Kim JK, Pan HC, Reese P, Stodieck L, Lin A, TingK, Kwak JH, Soo C. Guidelines for Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Analysis of Trabecular Bone-Rich Regions in Mice: Improved Precision, Accuracy, and Sensitivity for Assessing Longitudinal Bone Changes. Tissue Eng Part C Methods. 2016;22(5):451-463.
Publication Date: 5/11/16
Description: Trabecular bone is frequently studied in osteoporosis research because changes in trabecular bone are the most common cause of osteoporotic fractures. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) analysis specific to trabecular bone-rich regions is crucial to longitudinal osteoporosis research. The purpose of this study is to define a novel method for accurately analyzing trabecular bone-rich regions in mice via DXA. This method will be utilized to analyze scans obtained from the International Space Station in an upcoming study of microgravity-induced bone loss. Thirty 12-week-old BALB/c mice were studied. The novel method was developed by preanalyzing trabecular bone-rich sites in the distal femur, proximal tibia, and lumbar vertebrae via high-resolution X-ray imaging followed by DXA and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses. The key DXAsteps described by the novel method were (1) proper mouse positioning, (2) region of interest (ROI) sizing, and (3)ROI positioning. The precision of the new method was assessed by reliability tests and a 14-week longitudinal study. The bone mineral content (BMC) data from DXA was then compared to the BMC data from micro-CT to assess accuracy. Bone mineral density (BMD) intra-class correlation coefficients of the new method ranging from 0.743 to 0.945 and Levene?s test showing that there was significantly lower variances of data generated by new method both verified its consistency. By new method, a Bland?Altman plot displayed good agreement between DXA BMC and micro-CT BMC for all sites and they were strongly correlated at the distal femur and proximal tibia (r = 0.846, p < 0.01; r = 0.879, p < 0.01, respectively). The results suggest that the novel method for site-specific analysis of trabecular bone-rich regions in mice via DXA yields more precise, accurate, and repeatable BMD measurements than the conventional method.