Characterization of sensitivity degradation seen from the UV to NIR by RAIDS on the International Space Station
Stephan, Andrew W., et al. (2011). "Characterization of sensitivity degradation seen from the UV to NIR by RAIDS on the International Space Station." 8148: 814804-814804-11
This paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity changes experienced by three of the eight sensors that comprise the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) after more than a year operating on board the International Space Station (ISS). These sensors are the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph (EUVS) that covers 550-1100 Å, the Middle Ultraviolet (MUV) spectrometer that covers 1900-3100Å, and the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) that covers 7220-8740 Å. The scientific goal for RAIDS is comprehensive remote sensing of the temperature, composition, and structure of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere from 85-200 km. RAIDS was installed on the ISS Japanese Expansion Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in September of 2009. After initial checkout the sensors began routine operations that are only interrupted for sensor safety by occasional ISS maneuvers as well as a few days per month when the orbit imparts a risk from exposure to the Sun. This history of measurements has been used to evaluate the rate of degradation of the RAIDS sensors exposed to an environment with significant sources of particulate and molecular contamination. The RAIDS EUVS, including both contamination and detector gain sag, has shown an overall signal loss rate of 0.2% per day since the start of the mission, with an upper boundary of 0.13% per day attributed solely to contamination effects. This upper boundary is driven by uncertainty in the change in the emission field due to changing solar conditions, and there is strong evidence that the true loss due to contamination is significantly smaller. The MUV and NIRS have shown stability to within 1% over the first year of operations.