In vitro osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells in a microgravity bioreactor
Koc, A., et al. (2008). "In vitro osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells in a microgravity bioreactor." Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers 23 3: 244-261
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells with the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, myocytes, and adipocytes. They have potential for bone tissue engineering by the utilization of in vitro expanded cells with osteogenic capacity and their delivery to the appropriate sites via biomaterial scaffolds. The objective was to evaluate the potential of rat bone marrow MSCs to form 3D bone-like tissue by the use of mineralized poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) foam and osteoinductive medium under rotating culture conditions. PLGA foams were prepared by solvent casting and particulate leaching, then mineralized by incubating in simulated body fluid. MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of young Wistar rats were expanded and seeded on the mineralized scaffolds. The cell-polymer constructs were then cultured in a slow turning lateral vessel-type rotating bioreactor for 4 weeks under the effect of osteogenic inducers, b-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid and dexamethasone. Mineralization was evaluated using FT-IR and increases in dry mass; morphology changes of the mineralized foams and cell adhesion was characterized by SEM; cell viability was monitored by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthia-zol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide). Osteogenic differentiation was determined by using immunohistochemistry (anti-Osteopontin). Results indicate the feasibility of bone tissue engineering with MSCs and mineralized PLGA scaffolds supporting cell adhesion, viability and osteogenic differentiation properties of cells in hybrid structures under appropriate bioreactor conditions.