In the frame of the joint experiment BRADOS-1, absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer were assessed by means of 7LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) thermoluminescence detectors for different panels onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station in the timeframe between February and October 2001 (248 days). A technique is presented to correct the measured absorbed dose values for thermoluminescent efficiency in the radiation climate onboard the spacecraft. Average linear energy transfer is determined from the high-temperature thermoluminescence emission in the TLD-700 glowcurve and used as a parameter in the thermoluminescent-efficiency correction. Depending on the shielding distribution, the efficiency–corrected absorbed dose varies between 168(2) μGy/d in panel No. 318 (core block ceiling) and 249(4) μGy/d in panel No. 443 (starboard-side commander cabin). The experimental data are compared with model calculations using detailed shielding distributions and orbit parameters as input.
Research Containing: Absorbed dose
The Russian BRADOS experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was aimed at developing methods in radiation dosimetry and radiobiology to improve the reliability of risk estimates for the radiation environment in low-Earth orbit. Experimental data from thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) gathered during the BRADOS-1 (24 February–31 October 2001) mission are reviewed and convolved to obtain absorbed dose and dose equivalent from primary and secondary cosmic-ray particles. Absorbed dose rates in the ISS Russian Segment (Zvezda) ranged from 208 ± 14 to 275 ± 14 μ Gy d – 1 . Dose equivalent rates were determined to range from 438 ± 29 to 536 ± 32 μ Sv d – 1 , indicating a quality factor between 1.95 ± 0.15 and 2.11 ± 0.20 . The contribution of densely ionizing particles ( LET ⩾ 10 keV μ m – 1 ) to dose equivalent made up between 54% and 64%.
Cosmic ray detection on the ISS by a 3 axes track etch detector stack and the complementary calibration studies
The complex radiation field inside the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the dose received by its crew was studied for several years in the BRADOS ( 1 – 5 ) projects organized by the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP, Moscow) with the participation of different laboratories. The results of the measurements performed during the BRADOS-5 project by a 3 axes solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) stack as LET spectra and dose values are presented. According to the results, no remarkable directional dependence could be observed in the radiation field. The averaged absorbed dose rate and dose equivalent rate values above ∼ 12 keV μ m – 1 were 27.0 ± 1.6 μ Gy d – 1 and 211.4 ± 14.4 μ Sv d – 1 , respectively, resulting in an averaged quality factor of 7.9 ± 0.1 .
A PAssive Dosimeter for Life-science Experiments in Space (PADLES) has been developed for measuring total absorbed dose and dose equivalents in the radiation environments of the International Space Station (ISS) where the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of radiation ranges from 0.2 (ionization minimum) to 103 keVμm−1 or more. PADLES consists of two types of passive and integrating radiation detectors: MSO-S (Mg2SiO4:Tb) ThermoLuminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and antioxidant-doped CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. In this paper, we first describe a method to obtain a water-equivalent absorbed dose by combining data from these two types of detector. In order to increase the reliability of PADLES for ISS space radiation dosimetry, we investigated the following characteristics of MSO-S TLDs: calibration of our ThermoLuminescence (TL) readout system for high-energy protons and gamma rays from 60Co and 137Cs sources; dose responses for high-energy heavy ions (He, C, Si, Ar, Fe); response variation of different manufacture batches; directional response for the high-energy protons; the initial variations and long-term fading effects of the TL response for high-energy protons and heavy ions at temperatures from −80 °C to 60 °C; and LET response.
Area radiation monitoring on ISS Increments 17 to 22 using PADLES in the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo
The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is performing a continuous area radiation monitoring experiment using the “PAssive Dosimeters for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES) system inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo on board the International Space Station (ISS). The PADLES dosimeter consists of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). JAXA has run the Area PADLES experiment since the Kibo module was attached to the ISS in June 2008, using 17 dosimeters in fixed locations on the Pressurized Module (PM) and the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) of Kibo, which are replaced every 6 months or every Increment, respectively. For three monitoring periods, known as Area PADLES experiment series #1 to #3, of 301, 180, and 232 days in June 2008 to April 2010 over ISS Increments 17 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 12 positions in the PM of Kibo were 319 ± 30 μGy/day (618 ± 102 μSv/day), 276 ± 30 μGy/day (608 ± 94 μSv/day), and 293 ± 33 μGy/day (588 ± 84 μSv/day), respectively. The radiation measurement in the ELM-PS was conducted in only Area PADLES experiment series #3 from August 2009 to April 2010 (232 days) over ISS Increments 21 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 5 positions was 297 ± 28 μGy/day (661 ± 65 μSv/day). The directional dependence of the radiation field was also investigated by installing PADLES dosimeters located in the zenith of ELM-PS of Kibo.
Analysis of radiation dose variations measured by passive dosimeters onboard the International Space Station during the solar quiet period (2007–2008)
The average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from space radiation were observed using passive dosimeters with same material and configuration at the same location onboard the International Space Station (ISS) over four different occasions (I–IV) between 2007 and 2008. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). Total average absorbed dose rate increased by 68 ± 9% over two years. The observed increase was due to the incremental increase in the altitude of the ISS over the course of the experiment and the corresponding increase in trapped proton flux encountered during passage of the ISS through the SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly), which was confirmed with the results monitored by DB-8 active dosimeter on the ISS. The PNTD data showed that the average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from particles of LET∞H2O ≥ 100 keV/μm were 28 ± 2% and 51 ± 3% of ≥10 keV/μm during Periods I–III, while the dose contributions of particles ≥100 keV/μm during Period IV were 36 ± 5% and 59 ± 10%, respectively. The integral dose equivalent distribution during Period IV shows significant enhancement from particles ≥100 keV/μm. These facts suggest that a significant fraction of the high LET component is due to short-range recoil nuclei produced in target fragmentation reactions between primary protons and the nuclei of the passive dosimeters and surrounding materials.
Variation of absorbed doses onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as measured with passive detectors
Cosmic radiation represents possible risk for the astronauts. For estimation of the radiation onboard the spacecraft in space flights, it is necessary to obtain the data on dose distribution in real space flight conditions. This contribution deals with the study of absorbed dose and dose equivalent due to space radiation in different compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) using passive detectors. Luminescent detectors (LD) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module on ISS from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days); they were placed at SPD boxes and positioned at 6 various locations inside the Russian Service Module. LD were used to measure absorbed doses, particularly from low-LET particles and photons, PNTDs were used to measure the spectra of linear energy transfer (LET), absorbed dose, and dose equivalents from particles with LET∞H2O >5 keV/μm. Results from both types of detectors (LD and PNTD) were then combined together to obtain total values of absorbed doses and dose equivalents. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of registered particle fluxes, are presented as the function of position of SPD boxes (shielding thickness). Also the influence of position of detectors inside the SPD boxes (top and bottom wall) will be discussed. The dose characteristics depend on the location inside the Service Module; their variation has been observed to be up to factor of almost 2.
The “SCORPION” program onboard the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to carry out complex research of the effects of the nar-Earth space parameters on the conditions under which various experiments and operations are being conducted. Special attention in this program was paid to the biological objects onboard the orbital station, e.g. it w as found that variation in the number of colony forming units (micromicets and bacteria) correlates with the solar activity and the absorbed dose. The “SCORPION” experiment onboard the RS ISS started in January 2002. It was designed to measure the following parameters inside the space absorbed doses in different places inside the RS ISS, the fluxes of energetic charged particles, neutrons and gamma-quanta; the vectors of the magnetic field and low-frequency electromagnetic waves. At the same time the growth of micromicets on the samples of various materials was studied. The description of the “SCORPION” experiment and the preliminary results obtained onboard the RS ISS in 2002 are presented.
DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace (DOBIES) with luminescence (OSL and TL) and track etch detectors
The objective of the “DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace” (DOBIES) project is to develop a standard dosimetric method as a combination of different techniques to estimate absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in biological samples in space experiments. The detectors investigated in the project include various types of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), such as LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, CaSO 4 :Dy, as well as Al 2 O 3 :C used as TLD and optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs), and track-etch detectors (TED). This paper describes the DOBIES project and reports preliminary results obtained during the BASE-A experiment carried out at the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2006. The results are compared to data from previous space exposures carried out by the members of the DOBIES project.
This article presents the results of a systematic literature review to locate peer-reviewed journal articles that offer equivalent or absorbed radiation dose measurements for locations in outer space. The review utilized three separate keyword searches, one using MEDLINE and 2 using Google Scholar. The queries returned a total of 3,779 potential source documents, 819 of which were screened for inclusion. The final article set contained 43 articles. The articles were all in English though they were contributed by authors from 10 different nations. The United States was the most frequent contributor followed by Germany. The articles provided data from every manned US space program except Project Mercury, as well as from 3 Soviet space stations. The article pool displayed recency in publication, with a majority of the articles published in 1990 or later. It is speculated that this is due to a preference for reporting results in technical reports and conference abstracts in the 1960s and 1970s. The shift from research conducted by contractors to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to partnerships with civilian scientists at universities may be responsible for the increased frequency of publication in peer-reviewed journals. The collection of articles provides more than 550 dose measurements for spacecraft and extra-vehicular activity in 42 combinations of inclination and altitude in low Earth orbit. The articles also provide 57 measurements for lunar missions. The most often sampled locations were those that had space stations, followed by measurements taken aboard the Gemini capsules and the Space Shuttle fleet. This review demonstrates that dosimetric data exist in sufficient abundance that they might be further synthesized into useful dose estimation models and tools. Such tools could be of great utility in mission planning and epidemiological studies of the effects of space radiation on human health.