A discussion of different methods to evaluate dose/response and biological effects of ionizing radiation is given. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) is presented as a high performing observation method for evaluating different cytological effects. Standard cytochemical techniques can be used to analyse the cell in situ with minimal disturbance of morphology and structure. If a relatively small number of cells are affected by the treatment, the use of confocal microscope observations is fast and has a better resolution than conventional fluorescence microscopy. The optical sectioning capability of the CSLM makes it possible to analyse stacks of cells on detectors up to a depth of 200 micrometer with a resolution of 0.7 micrometer. This is used to analyse single cell electrophoresis results and nuclear track analysis in poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC). Consecutive analysis of cells cultivated on PADC, and analysis of nuclear tracks after chemical etched tracks in the PADC, will make it possible to correlate physical dose with direct cellular effects. This is a promising method for single cell analysis and the study of the effects of ionizing radiation at low particle flux density.