Analysis of the results of long term investigations of bones in cosmonauts on board Mir orbital sta tion(OS) and International Space Station (ISS) (n = 80) was performed. Theoretically predicted (evolution ary predefined) change in mass of different skeleton bones was found to be correlated (r = 0.904) with the position relative to Earth’s gravity vector. Vector dependence of bone loss results from local specificity of expression of bone metabolism genes, which reflects mechanical prehistory of skeleton structures in the evo lution of Homo erectus. Genetic polymorphism is accountable for high individual variability of bone loss, which is attested by the dependence of bone loss rate on polymorphism of certain genetic markers of bone metabolism. The type of the orbital vehicle did not affect the individual specific stability of the bone loss ratio in different segments of the skeleton. This fact is considered as a phenotype fingerprint of local metabolism in the form of a locus specific spatial structure of distribution of non collagen proteins responsible for posi tion regulation of endosteal metabolism. Drug treatment of osteoporosis (n = 107) evidences that recovery rate depends on bone location; the most likely reason is different effectiveness of local osteotropic interven tion into areas of bustling resorption.
Research Containing: Cosmonaut
Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope
Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS), has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP) events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.
Experimental elaboration of liquid droplet cooler-radiator models under microgravity and deep vacuum conditions
The basic results of space tests of liquid droplet cooler radiator models as the main elements of frameless systems for low grade heat rejection are considered. The studies carried out have been analyzed and intermediate elaboration’s results are summarized, which concern (1) the development of generators of drop let propellant flows, (2) revealing an operational behavior of fluid collectors of various types and analysis of unsolved problems associated with droplet collection upon the open trajectory’s section passage, and (3) pro vision of the coolant circulation contour’s closing. The necessity is substantiated for the activization of works directed to carrying out space experiments with improved radiator models and new promising propellants in order to provide a possibility of creating new space power plants characterized by megawatt power levels.
INTRODUCTION: The system of countermeasures for the adverse effects of microgravity developed in the USSR supported the successful implementation of long-duration spaceflight (LDS) programs on the Salyut and Mir orbital stations and was subsequently adapted for flights on the International Space Station (ISS). From 2000 through 2010, crews completed 26 ISS flight increments ranging in duration from 140 to 216 d, with the participation of 27 Russian cosmonauts. These flights have made it possible to more precisely determine a crew-member’s level of conditioning, better assess the advantages and disadvantages of training processes, and determine prospects for future developments.
The effect of microgravity on the in vitro NK cell function during six International Space Station Missions
The level of natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity was measured during co-cultivation of human lymphocytes and target cells (K- 562) in microgravity. Flight experiments were carried out using special instrumentation, the “Fibroblast-1” cassettes, in the frame of Russian scientific program during six ISS missions. Lymphocyte suspensions from human venous blood were used in experiments during short-term flights on six ISS missions (7 –12). Russian space crew members performed the experiments after Soyuz docking. The first step was mixing lymphocytes and 3H-labeled K-562 cells and their incubation at 37°C during 24 hs; the second step was filtration of the cell suspension. The frozen medium and filters were analyzed for the cytokine level and cytotoxic activity after landing. It was found that lympho- cytes with different basal levels of cytotoxic activity kept the ability of recognizing and lysing malignant cells. In micrograv- ity, cytotoxity increased to 160% of the basal levels. Donor indi- vidual features modulated the magnitude of the increase. The measurement of interleukin levels (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2) in medi- um showed that synthesis of TNF-α increased during cell co-cul- tivation in microgravity. The level of IL-2 was very low in flight and ground control samples. The production of IL-1 by lympho- cytes decreased after in-flight incubation. The results indicate that microgravity did not disturb the cytotoxic function of immune cells in vitro during 24 h incubation with specific target cells.
The growth of biocrystalline films of catalase on amorphous substrates having a crystallographically symmetric microrelief (artificial epitaxy, or ‘‘graphoepitaxy’’) was studied both under microgravity conditions in space and on the Earth. While highly oriented films formed under microgravity conditions, the films grown in comparable earth experiments were more disordered, with fewer crystallites oriented parallel to the steps of the microrelief. This difference can be explained by the fact that, in microgravity, only the surface forces between the biocrystallites and the substrates are active. On the Earth, other gravity-induced effects such as sedimentation and fluid convection also play an important role in crystallite orientation. r 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
INTRODUCTION: Long-duration spaceflight results in musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, and sensorimotor deconditioning. Historically, exercise has been used as a countermeasure to mitigate these deleterious effects that occur as a consequence of microgravity exposures. The International Space Station (ISS) exercise community describes their approaches, biomedical surveillance, and lessons learned in the development of exercise countermeasure modalities and prescriptions for maintaining health and performance among station crews. This report is focused on the first 10 yr of ISS defined as Expeditions 1-25 and includes only crewmembers with missions > 30 d on ISS for all 5 partner agencies (United States, Russia, Europe, Japan, and Canada). All 72 cosmonauts and astronauts participated in the ISS exercise countermeasures program. This Supplement presents a series of papers that provide an overview of the first decade of ISS exercise from a multidisciplinary, multinational perspective to evaluate the initial countermeasure program and record its operational limitations and challenges. In addition, we provide results from standardized medical evaluations before, during, and after each mission. Information presented in this context is intended to describe baseline conditions of the ISS exercise program. This paper offers an introduction to the subsequent series of manuscripts.
The increased heterogeneity of International Space Station (ISS) crews′ composition (in terms of nationality, profession and gender) together with stressful situations, due to space flight, can have a significant impact on group interaction and cohesion, as well as on communications with Mission Control Center (MCC) and the success of the mission as a whole. Culturally related differences in values, goals, and behavioral norms could influence mutual perception and, thus, cohesive group formation. The purpose of onboard “Interaction-Attitudes” experiment is to study the patterns of small group (space crew) behavior in extended space flight. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions 19–30 with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers. Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. We used Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) software for analyzing subjects′ attitudes toward social environment (crewmembers and MCC). It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight. Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity (motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline) and good social relationships (sociability, friendship, and tolerance), as well. Post-flight study of changes in perceptions, related to Real Self-image, did not reveal significant differences between the images of Russian crew-members and representatives from foreign space agencies. A certain difference in perceptions was found in cosmonauts with more integrated system of evaluations: after space flight they perceived foreign participants as “closer” to their Ideal, while Russian crew-members were perceived mostly as “distant” from Ideal Self of these subjects. Perceptions of people from Earth were also more critical. These differences are likely to be manifestations of interpersonal perception stereotypes. Described patterns of changes in perceptions of cosmonauts, who have performed space flight as a part of ISS multinational crew, allow us to suggest the recommendations for development of ISS crew training, in particular, it seems useful to increase the time of joint training for deepening of intercultural interaction.
Some of the aspects of comparative analysis of the hemodynamic reactions to LBNP in cosmonauts of different age groups
This was the first study of age-related differences of the cardiovascular system functioning and reactions to the LBNP test in career cosmonauts. Results of 174 LBNP tests performed within the standard medical monitoring program using Gamma-01 (orbital station Mir) and Gamma-lM (ISS) were subjected to comparative analysis. Thirty eight cosmonauts–members of 25 long-duration Mir and ISS missions were divided into two age groups, i.e. 30-39 y.o. (mean 36 & 0.7, 39% of all subjects) and 40-55 y.o. (mean 46 & 0.8, 61% of all subjects). The testing was performed before launch and in flight (typically on FD-120). Age-specifc changes in the hemodynamic status were recorded in resting cosmonauts pre-flight and in spaceflight microgravity; relative dynamics of the CV parameters in response to standing posture imitation was on one and the same patterns and yet demonstrated unequal intensity before and in flight. Test results implicate that analysis and interpretation of cosmonauts' medical monitoring data should take into account individual age, which is of particular practical importance when dealing with the LBNP test data obtained in different periods of space flight.
Dependence of the circulation system functioning on cosmonaut age according to the results of physical loading tests on a veloergometer
Age-related hemodynamic reactions to the standard incremental physical loading tests on a cycle ergometer were assessed in cosmonauts before and during extended space missions. Analysis of the data from 353 tests performed with 63 cosmonauts differentiated into three age groups (30–39, 40–49, and 50–55 years old) showed changes in adaptive-compensatory hemodynamic responses to microgravity and physical loading depending on age. The consistent gradual degradation of the heart chronotropic function with age can be interpreted as a symptom of declining cardiovascular reactivity. In orbit, the cardiac output volume depended mainly on heart rate and blood pressure (i.e., vascular tone).