We examine the dynamics of a binary mixture in a cubic cell subjected to a temperature differential and oscillatory forcing. The Soret effect, which is negative in the present study, provides a coupling mechanism by which a temperature gradient establishes a concentration gradient in a mixture. We present the results of experiments that were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) and compare the observations with the results of direct numerical simulations. The evolution of temperature and concentration fields is investigated by optical digital interferometry. One advantage of the experimental technique is the observation of the fields along two perpendicular directions of the cell, allowing us to restore the three-dimensional field. Experimental evidence disproves speculations that the ISS microgravity environment always affects diffusion-controlled processes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that imposed vibrations with constant frequency and amplitude create slow mean flows and that they do influence the diffusion kinetics. The perturbation of the diffusive fields scales as the square of the vibrational velocity. In addition to calculations of the full three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations, a two-time-scale computational methodology is used for situations in which the forcing period is very small compared to the natural time scales of the problem. The simulations show excellent agreement with experimental observations.
Research Containing: diffusion
Contribution to the benchmark for ternary mixtures: Measurement of the Soret, diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients in the ternary mixture THN/IBB/nC12 with 0.8/0.1/0.1 mass fractions in ground and orbital laboratories
We have determined the Soret (ST), diffusion (D, and thermodiffusion (DT) coefficients in a ternary mixture of tetralin-isobutylbenzene-n-dodecane with a composition of 0.80/0.10/0.10 by mass fraction at a temperature of 298K. The Soret coefficients were measured in the microgravity experiment DCMIX1 and on the ground by optical digital interferometry (ODI) using two lasers with different wavelengths. The values of the Soret coefficients were determined from the stationary separation of the components using two- and six-parameter fits. The diffusion coefficients were independently measured using the Taylor Dispersion Technique in the ground laboratory, and the thermodiffusion coefficients were derived from known ST and matrix D. The processing of the data from the DCMIX experiment conducted on the International Space Station is discussed in detail. The multi-user design of the on-board instrument causes perturbations in the component separation. Several recommendations are suggested for improving the quality of the microgravity results. For example, we demonstrated that the tomography reconstruction of the 3-D concentration field allows to restore the underestimated component separation resulting from the spatial non-linearity of the temperature field. Furthermore, to avoid errors in component separation due to mass exchange between the working liquid volume and the expansion volume at the top of the cell, we suggest considering the evolution of the separation only in the lower half of the cell. The results of this study displayed reasonable quantitative agreement between the microgravity and ground experiments.
Contribution to the benchmark for ternary mixtures: Measurement of diffusion and Soret coefficients of ternary system tetrahydronaphtalene-isobutylbenzene-n-dodecane with mass fractions 80-10-10 at 25 degrees C
This paper provides the molecular diffusion and Soret coefficients of the ternary system 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphtalene, isobutylbenzene, n -dodecane system at mass fractions 0.8-0.1-0.1 and temperature 25 ( degrees )C for implementation into the benchmark presented in this topical issue. The Soret coefficients are determined by digital interferometry using the data of DSC-DCMIX microgravity experiment. The method used takes into account the influence of the thermal field on the Soret separations and the selection of the image processing techniques results in reproducible Soret coefficients.The diffusion coefficients are obtained by the Open Ended Capillary technique The fitting of the data collected through a set of two complementary experimental runs allows retrieving the four Fickian diffusion coefficients.
Growth of an ice disk: dependence of critical thickness for disk instability on supercooling of water
The appearance of an asymmetrical pattern that occurs when a disk crystal of ice grows from supercooled water was studied by using an analysis of growth rates for radius and thickness. The growth of the radius is controlled by transport of latent heat and is calculated by solving the diffusion equation for the temperature field surrounding the disk. The growth of the thickness is governed by the generation and lateral motion of steps and is expressed as a power function of the supercooling at the center of a basal face. Symmetry breaking with respect to the basal face of an ice disk crystal is observed when the thickness reaches a critical value; then one basal face becomes larger than the other and the disk loses its cylindrical shape. Subsequently, morphological instability occurs at the edge of the larger basal face of the asymmetrical shape (Shimada, W.; Furukawa, Y. J. Phys. Chem. 1997, B101, 6171-6173). We show that the critical thickness is related to the critical condition for the stable growth of a basal face. A difference of growth rates between two basal faces is a possible mechanism for the appearance of the asymmetrical shape.
The IVIDIL (Influence of VIbrations on DIffusion in Liquids) experiment was aimed at utilizing the International Space Station for investigating the effects of vibrations on liquid diffusion and thermodiffusion. The SODI-IVIDIL project of ESA is gathering together European, Canadian and Russian researchers with complementary skills to prepare and carry out the experiment, to process the raw data and perform numerical modeling of the phenomena. The experiment IVIDIL started on the October 5, 2009. In total 55 experimental runs were successfully completed by 20 January, 2010. A general description of the ISS facility related to the diffusion experiments and accessible for European researchers is briefly presented and some details about IVIDIL instrument are given. The scientific interest of this short article is focused on one of the objectives of the experiment: performing precise measurements of diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients for binary mixtures in the absence of gravity. We demonstrate possibility of the experimental environment and report on the first results related to measurements of mass transport coefficients in the mixture with the negative Soret effect: 10% isopropanol (IPA)–90% water.
Viscous fingering (VF) is an interfacial hydrodynamic instability phenomenon observed when a fluid of lower viscosity displaces a higher viscous one in a porous media. In miscible viscous fingering, the concentration gradient of the undergoing fluids is an important factor, as the viscosity of the fluids are driven by concentration. Diffusion takes place when two miscible fluids are brought in contact with each other. However, if the diffusion rate is slow enough, the concentration gradient of the two fluids remains very large during some time. Such steep concentration gradient, which mimics a surface tension type force, called the effective interfacial tension, appears in various cases such as aqua-organic, polymer-monomer miscible systems, etc. Such interfacial tension effects on miscible VF is modeled using a stress term called Korteweg stress in the Darcy's equation by coupling with the convection-diffusion equation of the concentration. The effect of the Korteweg stresses at the onset of the instability has been analyzed through a linear stability analysis using a self-similar Quasi-steady-state-approximation (SS-QSSA) in which a self-similar diffusive base state profile is considered. The quasi-steady-state analyses available in literature are compared with the present SS-QSSA method and found that the latter captures appropriately the unconditional stability criterion at an earlier diffusive time as well as in long wave approximation. The effects of various governing parameters such as log-mobility ratio, Korteweg parameters, disturbances' wave number, etc., on the onset of the instability are discussed for, (i) the two semi-infinite miscible fluid zones and (ii) VF of the miscible slice cases. The stabilizing property of the Korteweg stresses effect is observed for both of the above mentioned cases. Critical miscible slice lengths are computed to have the onset of the instability for different governing parameters with or without Korteweg stresses. These stabilizing properties of the Korteweg stresses captured in this present study are in agreement with the numerical simulations of fully nonlinear problem and the experimental observations reported in the literature.
We show that the dynamics of large fractal colloid aggregates are well described by a combination of translational and rotational diffusion and internal elastic fluctuations, allowing both the aggregate size and internal elasticity to be determined by dynamic light scattering. The comparison of results obtained in microgravity and on Earth demonstrates that cluster growth is limited by gravity-induced restructuring. In the absence of gravity, thermal fluctuations ultimately inhibit fractal growth and set the fundamental limitation to the lowest volume fraction which will gel.
There exists an instrument SODI (Selected Optical Diagnostic Instrument) on the ISS where series of the DCMIX (Diffusion Coefficients in Mixtures) experiments are conducted by members of the ESA Topical Team. The study is addressed to the performance of thermal design of SODI instrument for DCMIX configuration. We report the results on the temperature fields which were measured interferometrically both in two ground setups (one thermally optimized; the other one, the engineering model of the ISS SODI-DCMIX experiment: non optimized) and in the ISS experiment itself with the respective numerical simulations. Even though monitoring of the cell with binary mixture THN−nC12 employs only an interferometer with one wave length instead of two for other cells with ternary mixtures, it gives valuable information about the instrument performance. Temperature and concentration fields observed during the tests in the engineering model are compared with those obtained in laboratory experiments with the same liquid, with numerical simulations and with first results from the ISS in Run #16. The thermal design of the microgravity cell, being not optimized for ground experiments, exhibits a promising performance in the weightlessness condition.
A comprehensive study of diffusion, thermodiffusion, and Soret coefficients of water-isopropanol mixtures
We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), thermodiffusion (D(T)), and Soret (S(T)) coefficients in water-isopropanol mixtures by three different instrumental techniques: thermogravitational column in combination with sliding symmetric tubes, optical beam deflection, and optical digital interferometry. All the coefficients have been measured over the full concentration range. Results from different instruments are in excellent agreement over a broad overlapping composition (water mass fraction) range 0.2 < c < 0.7, providing new reliable benchmark data. Comparison with microgravity measurements (SODI/IVIDIL (Selected Optical Diagnostic Instrument/Influence of VIbration on DIffusion in Liquids)) onboard the International Space Station and with literature data (where available) generally gives a good agreement. Contrary to theoretical predictions and previous experimental expectations we have not observed a second sign change of S(T) at low water concentrations.
Initial transient behavior in directional solidification of a bulk transparent model alloy in a cylinder
To characterize the dynamical formation of three-dimensional (3-D) arrays of cells and dendrites under diffusive growth conditions, in situ monitoring of a series of experiments on a transparent succinonitrile–0.24 wt.% camphor model alloy was carried out under low gravity in the Device for the Study of Critical Liquids and Crystallization (DECLIC) Directional Solidification Insert on board the International Space Station (ISS). The present paper focuses on the study of the transient solid–liquid interface recoil. Numerical thermal modeling led us to identify two thermal contributions to the interface recoil that increase with the pulling rate and add to the classical recoil associated with the solute boundary layer formation. As a consequence of those additional contributions, the characteristic front recoil is characterized by a fast initial transient followed by stabilization to a plateau whose location depends on pulling rate. The analysis of comparative experiments carried out on the ground shows the absence of stabilization of the interface position, attributed to longitudinal macrosegregation of the solute induced by convection. This behavior is surprisingly also observed in space experiments for low pulling rates. An order of magnitude analysis of the mode of solute transport reveals that for these conditions, the effective level of reduced gravity on board the ISS is not sufficiently low to suppress convection so that the interface recoils with longitudinal macrosegregation in a similar way as in ground experiments.