Embryoid body (EB) formation is a common intermediate during in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into specialized cell types. We have optimized the slow-turning, lateral vessel (STLV) for large scale and homogenous EB production from mouse embryonic stem cells. The effects of inoculating different cell numbers, time of EB adherence to gelatin-coated dishes, and rotation speed for optimal EB formation and cardiac differentiation were investigated. Using 3 x 10(5) cells/ml, 10 rpm rotary speed and plating of EBs onto gelatin-coated surfaces three days after culture, were the best parameters for optimal size and EB quality on consequent cardiac differentiation. These optimized parameters enrich cardiac differentiation in ES cells when using the STLV method.
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