This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.
Research Containing: Fluid behavior
Apparatus and methods for separating a fluid are provided. The apparatus can include a separator and a collector having an internal volume defined at least in part by one or more surfaces narrowing toward a bottom portion of the volume. The separator can include an exit port oriented toward the bottom portion of the volume. The internal volume can receive a fluid expelled from the separator into a flow path in the collector and the flow path can include at least two directional transitions within the collector.
Instability of thermocapillary convection in long liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids in microgravity
This paper reports experimental results on the instability of thermocapillary convection in long half-zone liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr=67, 112 and 207 for 5, 10 and 20 cSt silicone oils, respectively). The experiments were carried out in microgravity on the International Space Station, which allowed sufficiently long waiting period for the development of instability. Critical temperature differences were measured for liquid bridges of 30 and 50 mm diameters and up to 62.5 mm length. The resultant critical Marangoni numbers (Mac) were obtained for a wide range of aspect ratio (=height/diameter), AR, up to AR=2.0. Linear stability analyses for Pr=67 were also carried out to obtain numerical data for comparison. The present experimental results for Pr=67 indicate 5.0×103<Mac<2.0×104 for large AR (AR>1.25) and they are in good agreement with the present linear stability analysis result. In contrast, the present results are considerably smaller than the previous data (Pr=74) taken in the Space Shuttle experiments. It is shown that this difference is due to the effect of heating rate of the liquid bridge. The data for oscillation frequency and azimuthal mode number are also presented. The non-dimensional oscillation frequencies as well as Mac for Pr=67 have shown a sudden decrease at around AR=1.25, suggesting the bifurcation of neutral stability curves.
Interim Results from the Capillary Flow Experiment Aboard ISS: The Moving Contact Line Boundary Condition
This paper highlight the in-flight operations of the Capillary Flow Experiment Contact Line experiments (2 each) performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during the period between Increment 9 ad 13 (8/2004-9/2006). The CFE-CL vessels are simple fluid interface experiments that probe the uncertain impact of the boundary condition at the contact line – the region where liquid, gas, and solid meet. This region controls perhaps the most significant static and dynamic characteristics of the large length scale capillary phenomena critical to most multiphase fluid management systems aboard spacecraft. Difference in fluid behavior of nearly identical statics interfaces to nearly identical disturbances are attributed to differences in fluid physics in the vicinity of the contact line. The CFE-CL experiments are conducted on five occasions by ISS Astronauts M. Fincke, W. McArthur, and J. Williams. The number of tests performed including additional science experiments is made possible by various centrifuge techniques employed by the astronauts permitting the re-use of the once-wetted container. Several of these ‘extra science’ experiments are briefly described herein. Intermittent real-time video and audio downlink, continuous communication with the ground crews at NASA JSC, MSGFC and GRC, and the clear and entreating commentary of the crew made the conduct of the tests on ISS an enjoyable, laboratory-like experience for the science on the ground. The flight tapes from the onboard cameras have been results to Earth (name flight) and are expected to be digitized, reduced and made publically available in the near future. A concurrent blind numerical analysis is underway to predict the experiments result using a generally accepted CFD-tool with specific contact line boundary conditions.
This paper serves as a first presentation of quantitative data reduced from the Capillary Flow Contact Line Experiments recently completed aboard the International Space Station during Expeditions 9-16, 8/2004-11/2007. The simple fluid interface experiments probe the uncertain impact of the boundary condition at the contact line—the region where liquid, gas, and solid meet. This region controls perhaps the most significant static and dynamic characteristics of the large length scale capillary phenomena critical to most multiphase fluids management systems aboard spacecraft. Differences in fluid behavior of nearly identical static interfaces to nearly identical perturbations are attributed primarily to differences in fluid physics in the vicinity of the contact line. Free and pinned contact lines, large and small contact angles, and linear and nonlinear perturbations are tested for a variety of perturba- tion types (i.e. axial, slosh, and other modes) to right circular cylinders. The video and digi- tized datasets are to be made publicly available for model benchmarking. In parallel with the experimental effort, blind numerical predictions of the dynamic interface response to the experimentally applied input perturbations are offered as a demonstration of current capa- bilities to predict such phenomena. The agreement and lack of agreement between the experiments and numerics is our best guide to improve and/or verify current analytical methods to predict such phenomena critical to spacecraft fluid systems design.
The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) experiment concerns a transparent, simple, "wickless" heat pipe operated in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). In a microgravity environment, the relative effect of Marangoni flow is amplified because of highly reduced buoyancy driven flows as demonstrated herein. In this work, experimental results obtained using a transparent 30 mm long CVB module, 3 mm x 3 mm in square cross-section, with power inputs of up to 3.125 W are presented and discussed. Due to the extremely low Bond number and the dielectric materials of construction, the CVB system was ideally suited to determining if dry-out as a result of Marangoni forces might contribute to limiting heat pipe performance and exactly how that limitation occurs. Using a combination of visual observations and thermal measurements, we find a more complicated phenomenon in which opposing Marangoni and capillary forces lead to flooding of the device. A simple one-dimensional, thermal-fluid flow model describes the essence of the relative importance of the two stresses. Moreover, even though the heater end of the device is flooded and the liquid is highly superheated, boiling does not occur due to high evaporation rates.
A counterintuitive, thermocapillary-induced limit to heat- pipe performance was observed that is not predicted by current thermal-fluid models. Heat pipes operate under a number of physical constraints including the capillary, boiling, sonic, and entrainment limits that fundamentally affect their performance. Temperature gradients near the heated end may be high enough to generate significant Marangoni forces that oppose the return flow of liquid from the cold end. These forces are believed to exacerbate dry out conditions and force the capillary limit to be reached prematurely. Using a combination of image and thermal data from experiments conducted on the International Space Station with a transparent heat pipe, we show that in the presence of significant Marangoni forces, dry out is not the initial mechanism limiting performance, but that the physical cause is exactly the opposite behavior: flooding of the hot end with liquid. The observed effect is a consequence of the competition between capillary and Marangoni-induced forces. The temperature signature of flooding is virtually identical to dry out, making diagnosis difficult without direct visual observation of the vapor-liquid interface.
Boiling phenomena in the two-phase region of SF6 close to its critical point have been observed using the high-quality thermal and optical environment of the CNES dedicated facility ALI-DECLIC on board the International Space Station (ISS). The weightlessness environment of the fluid, which cancels buoyancy forces and favorites the three-dimensional spherical shape of the gas bubble, is proven to be an irreplaceable powerful tool for boiling studies. To identify each key mechanism of the boiling phenomena, the ALI-DECLIC experiments have benefited from (i) the well-adapted design of the test cells, (ii) the high-fidelity of the ALI insert teleoperation when long-duration experiment in stable thermal and microgravity environment are required and (iii) the high repeatability of the controlled thermal disturbances. These key mechanisms were observed by light transmission and interferometry technique independently with two sample cells filled with pure SF6 at a near-critical density. The fluid samples are driven away from thermal equilibrium by using a heater directly implemented in the fluid, or a surface heater on a sapphire optical window. In the interferometry cell, the bulk massive heater distinguishes two symmetrical two-phase domains. The modification of the gas bubble shape is observed during heating. In the direct observation cell, the gas bubble is separated by a liquid film from the thin layered transparent heater deposited on the sapphire window. The liquid film drying and the triple contact line motion during heating are observed using light transmission. The experiments have been performed in a temperature range of 10 K below the critical temperature Tc, with special attention to the range 0.1 mK ≤ T c − T ≤ 3 mK very close to the critical temperature. The unique advantage of this investigation is to provide opportunities to observe the boiling phenomena at very low heat fluxes, thanks to the fine adjustment of the liquid–vapor properties, (e.g. surface tension), by precise control of the distance to the critical point. We present the new observations of the gas bubble spreading over the heating surface which characterizes the regime where vapor bubbles nucleate separately and grow, as well as liquid drying, vapor film formation, triple contact line motion, which are the key mechanisms at the origin of the boiling crisis when the formed vapor film reduces the heat transfer drastically at the heater wall.
This paper reports some important results obtained from a series of microgravity experiments on the Marangoni convection that takes place in liquid bridges. This project, called Marangoni Experiment in Space (MEIS), started from August 22, 2008 as the first science experiment on the Japanese Experimental Module “KIBO” at the ISS. Two series of experiments, MEIS-1 and 2, were conducted in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The experimental methods used are explained in some detail. The maximum size of the liquid bridge that could be realized during these experiments was 30 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length, giving an aspect ratio of 2.0. The results are obtained for a wide range of aspect ratios of the liquid bridges, including the values that cannot be reached in 1 g experiments, and therefore, they provide indispensable amount of data for the study of instability mechanisms of the Marangoni convection.
Dynamic Fluid Interface Experiments Aboard the International Space Station: Model Benchmarking Dataset
This paper introduces a video database reduced from the handheld capillary flow contact line experiments completed aboard the International Space Station during expeditions 9-16, August 2004-November 2007. The simple fluid interface experiments quantify the uncertain impact of the boundary condition at the contact line: the region where liquid, gas, and solid meet. This region controls many significant static and dynamic characteristics of the large length scale capillary phenomena critical to multiphase fluids management systems aboard spacecraft. Difference in fluid behavior of nearly identical static interfaces to nearly identical perturbations are attributed primarily to difference in fluid physics in the vicinity of the contact line. Free and pinned contact lines, large and small contact angles, and linear and nonlinear perturbations are tested for several manually imparted perturbation types (i.e. axial slosh and other modes) to right circular cylinders. The video and sample digitized datasets are made publically available for model benchmarking. As a demonstration of the utility of the database, and in parallel with the experiment effort, blind numerical predication of the dynamic interface response to the experimentally applied input perturbation are offered as an example of current capabilities to predict such phenomena. The agreement and lack of agreement between the experiment and numeric is a guide to improve or verify current analytical methods to predict such phenomena critical to practical spacecraft fluid systems design.