We examine the dynamics of a binary mixture in a cubic cell subjected to a temperature differential and oscillatory forcing. The Soret effect, which is negative in the present study, provides a coupling mechanism by which a temperature gradient establishes a concentration gradient in a mixture. We present the results of experiments that were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) and compare the observations with the results of direct numerical simulations. The evolution of temperature and concentration fields is investigated by optical digital interferometry. One advantage of the experimental technique is the observation of the fields along two perpendicular directions of the cell, allowing us to restore the three-dimensional field. Experimental evidence disproves speculations that the ISS microgravity environment always affects diffusion-controlled processes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that imposed vibrations with constant frequency and amplitude create slow mean flows and that they do influence the diffusion kinetics. The perturbation of the diffusive fields scales as the square of the vibrational velocity. In addition to calculations of the full three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations, a two-time-scale computational methodology is used for situations in which the forcing period is very small compared to the natural time scales of the problem. The simulations show excellent agreement with experimental observations.
Research Containing: g-jitter
A series of fluid physics microgravity experiments with an enough long run time were performed in the ‘‘KIBO,’’ the Japanese Experiment Module aboard the International Space Station, to examine the transition to chaos of the thermocapillary convection in a half zone liquid bridge of silicone oil with a Prandtl number of 112. The temperature difference between the coaxial disks induced the thermocapillary-driven flow, and we experimentally demonstrated that the flow fields underwent a tran- sition from steady flow to oscillatory flow, and finally to chaotic flow with increasing temperature differ- ence. We obtained the surface temperature time series at the middle of the liquid bridge to quantitatively evaluate the transition process of the flow fields. By Fourier analysis, we further confirmed that the flow fields changed from a periodic, to a quasi-periodic, and finally to a chaotic state. The increasing nonlin- earity with the development of the flow fields was confirmed by time-series chaos analysis. The deter- mined Lyapunov exponent and the translation error indicated that the flow fields made transition to the chaotic field with the increasing temperature difference.
Temperature dependence of Soret and diffusion coefficients for toluene-cyclohexane mixture measured in convection-free environment
We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), Soret (S(T)), and thermodiffusion (D(T)) coefficients in toluene-cyclohexane mixture with mass fraction of toluene 0.40 onboard of the International Space Station. The coefficients were measured in the range of the mean temperatures between 20 degrees C and 34 degrees C. The Soret coefficient is negative within the investigated temperature range and its absolute value |S(T)| decreases with increasing temperature. The diffusion coefficient for this system increases with temperature rising. For comparison, the temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient was measured in ground laboratory using counter-flow cell technique and revealed a good agreement with microgravity results. A non-direct comparison of the measured onboard Soret coefficients with different systems indicated a similar trend for the temperature dependent behavior. Unexpected experimental finding is that for this system the thermodiffusion coefficient D(T) does not depend on temperature.
We study the singular event which took place when conducting an experiment with a liquid bridge aboard the International Space Station. The liquid bridge vibrated unexpectedly for several tens of seconds with an oscillation amplitude larger than 15% of its radius. At first glance, the analysis of the mass force measured by the accelerometer during the oscillation did not show any significant perturbation. However, our study reveals the existence of two small-amplitude vibrations of the experimental setup with practically the resonance frequency of the first lateral mode. These vibrations occurred a few tens of seconds before the liquid bridge oscillation reached its maximum amplitude, produced a mass force with a magnitude of the order of 10−5g. The numerical integration of the non-linear Navier–Stokes equations reproduces remarkably well the free surface oscillations measured in the experiments. It allows us to reconstruct the three-dimensional liquid bridge motion which took place in the experiment. The present study illustrates the sensitivity of liquid bridges in a microgravity environment, where tiny perturbations may produce significant vibrations which survive over long periods of time.
We present a transient experimental analysis of the DCMIX1 project conducted onboard the International Space Station for a ternary tetrahydronaphtalene, isobutylbenzene, n-dodecane mixture. Raw images taken in microgravity environment using the SODI (Selectable Optical Diagnostic) apparatus which is equipped with two wavelength diagnostic were processed and the results were analyzed in this work. We measured the concentration profile of the mixture containing 80% THN, 10% IBB and 10% nC12 during the entire experiment using an advanced image processing technique and accordingly we determined the Soret coefficients using an advanced curve-fitting and post-processing technique. It must be noted that the experiment has been repeated five times to ensure the repeatability of the experiment.
Entering "A NEW REALM" of KIBO Payload Operations – Continuous efforts for microgravity experiment environment and lessons learned from real time experiment operations in KIBO
On January 22nd, 2011(JST), KOUNOTORI2 (H-II Transfer Vehicle: HTV2) was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center toward the International Space Station (ISS) and two new JAXA payload racks, Kobairo rack and MSPR (Multi-purpose Small Payload Rack) were transferred to ISS/KIBO (Japanese Experiment Module: JEM). In addition to Saibo rack and Ryutai rack which are already in operation in KIBO, in total 4 Japanese experiment payload racks start operations in KIBO. Then KIBO payload operations embark on a new realm, full utilization phase. While the number and variety of microgravity experiments become increasing, simultaneous operation constraints should be considered to achieve multitask payload operations in ISS/KIBO and ever more complicated cooperative operations between crewmember and flight control team/science team are required. Especially for g-jitter improvement in ISS/KIBO, we have greatly advanced cooperative operations with crewmember in the recent increment based on the microgravity data analysis results. In this paper, newly operating Japanese experiment payloads characteristics and some methods to improve g-jitter environment are introduced from the front line of KIBO payload operations.
The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibrations on Diffusion in Liquids) has been performed in 2009-2010 onboard the ISS, inside the SODI instrument mounted in the Glovebox at the ESA Columbus module. 55 experimental runs were carried out and each of them lasted 18 hours. The objectives of the experiment were multi-fold and here we report results for one of them. After each space experiment there is a discussion about the role of onboard g–jitters. The attention is focused on reproducibility of the results, their accuracy and comparison with numerical simulations conducted in exact geometry and using the physical properties of the system. We shortly report on the results of six experiments which were performed in natural environment of the ISS without forced vibrations. Thermodiffusion process in the cells filled with binary mixtures was monitored by means of optical digital interferometry. Perturbations of the diffusion control processes by on-board g-jitters is not observed in nominal regime of the ISS. Perturbations of thermodiffusion process were observed in non-nominal regime of the ISS, e.g. attitude control maneuvers.
Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on the International Space Station: Experimental Results and Model Verification
The relatively poor understanding of gravity effects on pool boiling heat transfer can be attributed to the lack of long duration high-quality microgravity data, g-jitter associated with ground-based low gravity facilities, little data at intermediate gravity levels, and a poor understanding of the effect of important parameters even at earth gravity conditions. The results of over 200 pool boiling experiments with n-perfluorohexane as the test fluid performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are presented in this paper. A flat, transparent, constant temperature microheater array was used to perform experiments over a wide range of temperatures (55 °C < Tw < 107.5 °C), pressures (0.58 atm < P < 1.86 atm), subcoolings (1 °C ≤ ΔTsub ≤ 26 °C), and heater sizes (4.2 mm ≤ Lh ≤ 7.0 mm). The boiling process was visualized from the side and bottom. Based on this high quality microgravity data (a/g<10−6 ), the recently reported gravity scaling parameter for heat flux, which was primarily based on parabolic flight experiments, was modified to account for these new results. The updated model accurately predicts the experimental microgravity data to within ±20%. The robustness of this framework in predicting low gravity heat transfer is further demonstrated by predicting many of the trends in the pool boiling literature that cannot be explained by any single model.