Systematically results and new analysis data on the investigation of human bone system in space flight, the orbital station Mir and International Space Station, are presented. The bone mineral density, bone mineral content, identified as bone mass and body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured. Theoretically, an expected bone mass loss in trabecular tissue of lower skeletal half may by described as a quickly developing but reversible osteopenia and considered as evidence of functional adaptation of bone tissue to the changing mechanical load. A hypothesis of main mechanisms of osteopenia in microgravity is presented. High individual variability of bone mass losses and stability of individual pattern of correlation between bone mass losses in different skeletal segments were found. It is not possible to identify the relationship between bone mass losses and duration of space missions. Therefore it is not a sufficient ground to calculate the probability of reaching the critical level of bone demineralization by prolonged space flight. The same relates to the probability of prognosis of bone quality changes. There is data about dual energy X-ray absorptiometry that is insufficient for this prognosis. The main direction of investigations is presented which might optimize the interplanetary mission from the point of view of skeletal mechanical functions preservation.