As part of the Matroshka-R experiments, a spherical phantom and space bubble detectors (SBDs) were used on board the International Space Station to characterise the neutron radiation field. Seven experimental sessions with SBDs were carried out during expeditions ISS-13, ISS-14 and ISS-15. The detectors were positioned at various places throughout the Space Station, in order to determine dose variations with location and on/in the phantom in order to establish the relationship between the neutron dose measured externally to the body and the dose received internally. Experimental data on/in the phantom and at different locations are presented.
Research Containing: Humans
Space radiation doses in the anthropomorphous phantom in space experiment "Matryeshka-R" and spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity
Russian space experiment "Matryeshka-R" was conducted in 2004-2005 to study dose distribution in the body of anthropomorphous phantom inserted in a spacesuit imitating container mounted on outer surface of the ISS Service module (experiment "Matryeshka"). The objective was to compare doses inside the phantom in the container to human body donned in spacesuit "Orlan-M" during extravehicular activity (EVA). The shielding function was calculated using the geometric model, specification of the phantom shielded by the container, "Orlan-M" description, and results of ground-based estimation of shielding effectiveness by gamma-raying. Doses were calculated from the dose attenuation curves obtained for galactic cosmic rays, and the AE-8/AP-8 models of electron and proton flows in Earth's radiation belt. Calculated ratios of equivalent doses in representative points of the body critical organs to analogous doses in phantom "Matryeshka" H(ORLAN-M)/H(Matryeshka) for identical radiation conditions vary with organs and solar activity in the range from 0.1 to 1.8 with organs and solar activity. These observations should be taken into account when applying Matryeshka data to the EVA conditions.
Dose distribution in the depth of the tissue-equivalent ball phantom modeling location of human body critical organs inside the compartments of the International space station
Goal of the investigation is to study and to analyze radiation dose distribution in cosmonaut's body during long-term mission aboard the International space station (ISS). The established patterns of dose distribution under different conditions of the experiment allow simplify evaluation of dose accumulation by spacecrew. Dose from ionizing space radiation was determined with the help of thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in conditional depths of critical organs in human body modeled in a dosimetric device, i.e.–a ball-like tissue-equivalent phantom designed and manufactured in Russia for international space experiment Matreshka-R. The article reports experimental data disclosing the character and levels of exposure to ionizing radiation inside the Service module crew quarters during ISS missions 8 and 9 (425 days, 2004-2005) and the docking compartment (SO1) during ISS missions 15 and 16 (285 days, 2007-2008).
Radiation measurements of surface and deep organ doses were performed aboard the International Space Station, for the period of January 2006 to April 2007, using a MOSFET dosimetry system combined with the Matroshka-R spherical phantom. The averaged internal and surface dose rates are found to be 0.19 and 0.29 mGy d(-1), respectively. The levels of radiation dose to blood-forming organs (BFO) and to surface organs are compared with recommended safe limits. The maximum measured BFO dose has an average dose rate of 0.23 mGy d(-1) (84 mGy y(-1)), corresponding to 44 % of the recommended annual limit of 0.5 Sv, for a space radiation quality factor of 2.6. The annual surface dose is found to be higher at 126 mGy, corresponding to 16 % of the eye dose limit and to 11 % of the skin dose limit. Doses calculated using the Spenvis software showed deviations of up to 37 % from measurements.
Results of measuring neutron dose inside the Russian segment of the International Space Station using bubble detectors in experiment Matreshka-R
Distribution of neutron equivalent dose both inside and outside the spherical phantom (experiment Matryeshka-R) was determined with the help of dedicated research equipment "Bubble-dosimeter". Equipment is built up from an automatic bubbles counter and 8 bubble detectors of neutrons with energy ranging from approximately 200 keV to 15 MeV. Measurements inside the ISS were made in several 7-day sessions in the period from April 2006 till October 2007 (ISS increments 13-15). According to the bubble detectors on the outside of the phantom, ambient neutron dose H*(10) was equal to 0.1 mSv/d or approximately 20% of the dose from charged particles inside the ISS. In the tissue-equivalent phantom, neutron dose was 1.2 +/- 0.2 times less as compared with the phantom surface which characterized the degree of dose attenuation in cosmonaut's body.
The MATROSHKA Experiment: Results and Comparison from Extravehicular Activity (MTR-1) and Intravehicular Activity (MTR-2A/2B) Exposure
Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes.
Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station – overview and comparison
The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosemeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET∞) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosemeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosemeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosemeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.
To estimate the radiation risk of astronauts during space missions, it is necessary to measure dose characteristics in various compartments of the spacecraft; this knowledge can be further used for estimating the health hazard in planned missions. This contribution presents results obtained during several missions on board the International Space Station (ISS) during 2005-09. A combination of thermoluminescent and plastic nuclear track detectors was used to measure the absorbed dose and dose equivalent. These passive detectors have several advantages, especially small dimensions, which enabled their placement at various locations in different compartments inside the ISS or inside the phantom. Variation of dosimetric quantities with the phase of the solar cycle and the position inside the ISS is discussed.
The International Space Station (ISS) is becoming a reality with the docking of the Russian Service module (Zarya) with the Unity module (Zaveda). ISS will be in a nominal 51.65-degree inclination by 400 km orbit. This paper reviews the currently planned radiation measurements, which are in many instances, based on experiments previously flown on the Space Shuttle. Results to be expected based on Shuttle measurements are presented.
Modeled microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and increases adipogenesis
Space flight-induced bone loss has been attributed to a decrease in osteoblast function, without a significant change in bone resorption. To determine the effect of microgravity (MG) on bone, we used the Rotary Cell Culture System [developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)] to model MG. Cultured mouse calvariae demonstrated a 3-fold decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and failed to mineralize after 7 d of MG. ALP and osteocalcin gene expression were also decreased. To determine the effects of MG on osteoblastogenesis, we cultured human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on plastic microcarriers, and osteogenic differentiation was induced immediately before the initiation of modeled MG. A marked suppression of hMSC differentiation into osteoblasts was observed because the cells failed to express ALP, collagen 1, and osteonectin. The expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 was also inhibited. Interestingly, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma2), which is known to be important for adipocyte differentiation, adipsin, leptin, and glucose transporter-4 are highly expressed in response to MG. These changes were not corrected after 35 d of readaptation to normal gravity. In addition, MG decreased ERK- and increased p38-phosphorylation. These pathways are known to regulate the activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 and PPARgamma2, respectively. Taken together, our findings indicate that modeled MG inhibits the osteoblastic differentiation of hMSC and induces the development of an adipocytic lineage phenotype. This work will increase understanding and aid in the prevention of bone loss, not only in MG but also potentially in age-and disuse-related osteoporosis.