Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings form a specialized protuberance, the peg, on the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. When cucumber seeds germinate in a horizontal position, the seedlings develop a peg on the lower side of the transition zone. To verify the role of auxin action in peg formation, we examined the effect of the anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), on peg formation and mRNA accumulation of auxin-regulated genes. Application of PCIB to cucumber seedlings inhibited peg formation. The application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) competed with PCIB and induced peg formation. Furthermore, application of PCIB decreased auxin-inducible CsIAA1 mRNA and increased auxin-repressible CsGRP1 mRNA in the lower side of the transition zone. The differential accumulation of CsIAA1 and CsGRP1 mRNAs in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings grown in a horizontal position was smaller in the PCIB-treated seedlings. These results demonstrate that endogenous auxin redistributes and induces the differential expression of auxin-regulated genes, and ultimately results in the suppression or induction of peg formation in the gravistimulated transition zone of cucumber seedlings.