We present here an observation of the Cygnus Superbubble (CSB) using the Solid-state slit camera (SSC) aboard the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). The CSB is a large diffuse structure in the Cygnus region with enhanced soft X-ray emission. By utilizing the CCD spectral resolution of the SSC, we detected Fe, Ne, Mg emission lines from the CSB for the first time. The best-fit model implies a thin hot plasma of kT ≈ 0.3 keV with a depleted abundance of 0.26 ± 0.1 solar. Joint spectrum fittings of the ROSAT/PSPC data and MAXI/SSC data enabled us to measure precise values of NH and the temperature inside the CSB. The results show that all of the regions in the CSB have a similar NH and temperature, indicating that the CSB is a single unity. An energy budgets calculation suggests that (2–3) × 106 yr of stellar wind from the Cyg OB2 is sufficient to power up the CSB, whereas due to its off-center position, the origin of the CSB is most likely to be a Hypernova.
Research Containing: Iron
The results are presented of measurements high-energy particles in a customary manned space station orbit (a 350–450-km altitude, a 51.6° inclination; Salyut-6 and 7, MIR). The particles were recorded by the chambers composed of the Lavsan (polyethyleneterephtalate) solid-state nuclear track detector layers mounted outside a spacecraft for 1–3 years. A high resolution has been attained in the charge and energy spectra of 30–200 MeV/n Fe group particles. The results of measuring the particle fluxes in the space station orbits are used to restore the initial particle energy spectra in terms of the models that describe the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their penetration to the Earth's magnetosphere. The analysis demonstrates a high effectiveness of the described methods when applied to quite a number of space physics problems.
The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) detector was used to characterize the radiation environment inside the USLab of the International Space Station (ISS), where it measured the abundances of ions from Be to Fe. We compare the ALTEA results with Alteino results obtained in the PIRS module of the Russian segment of the ISS, and normalize to the high energy Si abundances given by Simpson. These are the first particle spectral measurements, which include ions up to Fe, performed in the USLab. The small differences observed between those made inside the USLab and the Simpson abundances can be attributed to the transport through the spacecraft hull. However, the low abundance of Fe cannot be attributed to only this process.
Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station
BACKGROUND: Increases in stored iron and dietary intake of iron during space flight have raised concern about the risk of excess iron and oxidative damage, particularly in bone. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to perform a comprehensive assessment of iron status in men and women before, during, and after long-duration space flight and to quantify the association of iron status with oxidative damage and bone loss. DESIGN: Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected from 23 crew members before, during, and after missions lasting 50 to 247 d to the International Space Station. RESULTS: Serum ferritin and body iron increased early in flight, and transferrin and transferrin receptors decreased later, which indicated that early increases in body iron stores occurred through the mobilization of iron to storage tissues. Acute phase proteins indicated no evidence of an inflammatory response during flight. Serum ferritin was positively correlated with the oxidative damage markers 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and prostaglandin F2alpha (r = 0.26, P < 0.001), and the greater the area under the curve for ferritin during flight, the greater the decrease in bone mineral density in the total hip (P = 0.031), trochanter (P = 0.006), hip neck (P = 0.044), and pelvis (P = 0.049) after flight. CONCLUSION: Increased iron stores may be a risk factor for oxidative damage and bone resorption.
Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq
A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the space flight environment has never been accomplished because of significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of space flight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared with identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed that 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground-based microgravity culture model. Space flight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during space flight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.