The paper proceeds as follows. Section two below discusses the topic of protein crystallization in biomedical research as well as our current understanding regarding the contribution of microgravity in developing better quality crystals. Section three addresses possible policy intervention, also including the introduction of a government funded consortium to diffuse risk. Section four outlines a specific model that has recently been developed by RTI International, which provides an interesting quantitative framework for measuring private sector costs. The outcome of this section is essentially a list of needed data and data sources. Finally, Section five concludes.
Research Containing: LEO
Revisit of Local X-Ray Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei with the MAXI Extragalactic Survey
We constructed a new X-ray (2–10 keV) luminosity function of Compton-thin active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local universe, using the first MAXI/GSC source catalog surveyed in the 4–10 keV band. The sample consists of 37 non-blazar AGNs at z = 0.002–0.2, whose identification is highly (>97%) complete. We confirmed the trend that the fraction of absorbed AGNs with NH > 1022 cm 2 rapidly decreases against the luminosity (LX), from 0.73 ̇0.10 at LX = 1042 43:5 erg s 1 to 0.12 ̇ 0.08 at LX = 1043:5–45:5 erg s 1 . The obtained luminosity function was well-fitted with a smoothly connected double power-law model whose indices are 1 = 0.84 (fixed) and 2 = 2.0 ̇ 0.2 below and above the break luminosity, L = 1043:3 ̇0:4 ergs 1, respectively. While the result of the MAXI/GSC agrees well with that of HEAO-1 at LX & 1043:5 ergs 1, it gives a larger number density at the lower luminosity range. A comparison between our luminosity function in the 2–10 keV band and that in the 14–195 keV band obtained from the Swift/BAT survey indicates that the averaged broad-band spectra in the 2–200 keV band should depend on the luminosity, approximated by Γ 1.7 for LX . 1044 ergs 1, while Γ 2.0 for LX & 1044 ergs 1. This trend was confirmed by the correlation between the luminosities in the 2–10 keV and 14–195 keV bands in our sample. We argue that there is no contradiction in the luminosity functions between above and below 10 keV once this effect is taken into account.
Rapid Access:Dream Chaser® Space Traffic Management and Operations to Enable Near-Immediate Payload Access for Responsive Mission and Payload Support
As research institutions all over the world are placing a higher value on space-based science, the need for rapid access to vehicles returning from space carrying experiments grows more important. One of the challenges of enhanced science utilization is rapid access to space vehicles post-flight, which is significantly enabled by effective space traffic management and integration of space operations into a mature commercial aviation system to achieve radically improved orbit to researcher timelines. Sierra Nevada Corporation’s (SNC) Space Systems’ Dream Chaser® reusable spacecraft is designed for multiple applications including cargo and/or crew resupply to the International Space Station and independent long duration science missions. The Dream Chaser is an optionally-piloted, reusable lifting-body spacecraft that lands horizontally on a runway, similar to the Space Shuttle. Unlike the Space Shuttle, the Dream Chaser design supports the unique capability of being able to land at many domestic and international commercial and public-use airports, and offers access to cargo and/or crew almost immediately thereafter. Though this capability presents a unique opportunity for researchers in the field of microgravity science, there are challenges when considering the current landscape of regulation, public risk, and autonomous flight. The potential opportunities associated with landing the Dream Chaser at public-use airports to enable globally convenient and rapid access to crew, cargo, and time critical microgravity experiments post-flight are identified and addressed in this paper.
This paper will explore the opportunities and challenges in developing the commercial market in LEO through the ISS program and all its facets, including operations, mission support activities, utilization, and contracting. The role of NASA-funded research in the vertical translation of basic research in space to practical application in the market or to other government service agencies will also be addressed. Other aspects, including government regulation, investment and tax incentives, and possible roles of various government agencies will also be explored. Of particular importance, the role of private industry, currently in the supply business, in the development of the demand for LEO capabilities and services beyond the federal government will be highlighted. In conclusion, this paper will address the prospects in reaching the goal of commercializing LEO starting from where we are today in human spaceflight and the International Space Station.
Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope
Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS), has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP) events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.
A reliable radiation risk assessment in space is a mandatory step for the development of countermeasures and long-duration mission planning in human spaceflight. Research in radiobiology provides information about possible risks linked to radiation. In addition, for a meaningful risk evaluation, the radiation exposure has to be assessed to a sufficient level of accuracy. Consequently, both the radiation models predicting the risks and the measurements used to validate such models must have an equivalent precision. Corresponding measurements can be performed both with passive and active devices. The former is easier to handle, cheaper, lighter, and smaller but they measure neither the time dependence of the radiation environment nor some of the details useful for a comprehensive radiation risk assessment. Active detectors provide most of these details and have been extensively used in the International Space Station. To easily access such an amount of data, a single point access is becoming essential. This review presents an ongoing work on the development of a tool that allows obtaining information about all relevant measurements performed with active detectors providing reliable inputs for radiation model validation.
We present the catalog of high Galactic-latitude (|b| > 10◦) X-ray sources detected in the first 37-month data of Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) / Gas Slit Camera (GSC). To achieve the best sensitivity, we develop a background model of the GSC that well reproduces the data based on the detailed on-board calibration. Source detection is performed through image fit with the Poisson likelihood algorithm. The catalog contains 500 objects detected in the 4–10 keV band with significance of sD,4−10keV ≥ 7. The limiting sensitivity is ≈ 7.5 × 10−12 ergs cm−2 s−1 (≈ 0.6 mCrab) in the 4–10 keV band for 50% of the survey area, which is the highest ever achieved as an all-sky survey mission covering this energy band. We summarize the statistical properties of the catalog and results from cross matching with the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog, the meta- catalog of X-ray detected clusters of galaxies, and the MAXI/GSC 7-month catalog. Our catalog lists the source name (2MAXI), position and its error, detection significances and fluxes in the 4–10 keV and 3–4 keV bands, their hardness ratio, and basic information of the likely counterpart available for 296 sources.
Damage from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) impacts poses a substantial risk for the loss of crew for the currently planned CEV missions to the International Space Station (ISS). The Columbia Space Shuttle accident in 2003 spurred an investigation that led to the requirement of an active impact monitoring system on the Shuttle Orbiter. The MMOD impact Damage Recording System (DRS) presents a reliable, mass- and power-efficient Thermal Protection System (TPS) impact detection system that can be readily integrated with manned and robotic spacecraft. Thus, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is considering inclusion of active MMOD detection systems for monitoring damage to the backshell TPS. MMOD impact detection systems have been developed and flown on satellites and probes dating back to the 1960s. These technologies were designed primarily to understand and characterize the MMOD environment found in low earth orbit (LEO). The only impact monitoring system qualified for use on manned spacecraft is the wing leading edge impact detection system (WLE IDS). During Shuttle ascent, the WLE IDS monitors impacts due to insulating foam shed from the external fuel tank onto the WLE. The WLE is particularly vulnerable due to the high heating environment experienced during reentry. Ever-increasing accumulation of man-made debris is magnifying this threat to shuttle and other spacecrafts operating in LEO. Therefore, the development of on-orbit impact monitoring systems that aid in the mitigation of the threat to manned spacecraft is needed. This paper describes the development and testing of the DRS, a massand power-efficient wireless MMOD impact detection system designed for potential incorporation into the backshell of the CEV. The DRS utilizes wireless data acquisition via custom designed wireless nodes. The DRS wireless nodes determine MMOD impact damage by employing an Embedded Damage Recorder (EDR) sensor. A variety of EDR sensor designs were considered based upon d- – ifferent damage detection and TPS integration requirements. The DRS system design was recently tested at the University of Dayton Research Institute's hypervelocity impact range. During this test series, seven hypervelocity impacts were conducted using aluminum and nylon projectiles to simulate MMOD impacts to representative models of the CEV backshell TPS. The TPS models were fabricated in a flight-like configuration integrating the EDR sensor at the bondline. The DRS accurately indicated damage to the TPS models on all seven hypervelocity impact tests. These results have confirmed the feasibility of the DRS employing the EDR sensor as a viable MMOD impact sensing solution. Vehicle integration and further space environment testing remain critical steps in maturing this technology to flight qualification.
The reflectance data and optical properties before and after flight were demonstrated in order to evaluate the long-term durability of the cermet coating in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coating proved to be quite durable over the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 6 mission. The optical properties of the titanium aluminum oxide cermet coating were evaluated in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared before flight using a Perkin-Elmer Lambda-19 spectrophotometer. The air mass zero solar spectrums was used to convolute the reflectance data into solar absorptance α, and the uncertainty is estimated to be ±0.005. Spectral reflectance data obtained before and after flight revealed essentially no change in the optical properties of solar absorptance and infrared emittance upon low-Earth-orbit exposure, consistent with ground laboratory evaluation of similar cermet coatings.
In order to monitor space environment and its temporal variations, JAXA Space Environment Group has been developing space radiation detectors as well as magnetometers and installing them on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites, Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) satellite, Quasi Zenith Orbit (QZO) satellite and Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). We are using these space environment data to know the situation of space environment and to provide warning messages to the satellite operators as well as ISS/JEM manager, when the space environment will be harmful. Based on our observation data, we also have constructed an advanced electron belt model for the use in satellite manufacturing. With space radiation data obtained by JAXA satellites and ISS, some findings related to the space radiation environment have been obtained. We will review our activities related to the space environment research and development in JAXA.