Microgravity induces alterations in the function- ing of immune cell; however, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been identified. In this study, hemocytes (blood cells) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were investigated under altered gravity conditions. The study was conducted on the ground in preparation for the BIOLAB TripleLux- B experiment, which will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). On-line kinetic measurements of reac- tive oxygen species (ROS) production during the oxidative burst and thus cellular activity of isolated hemocytes were performed in a photomultiplier (PMT)-clinostat (simulated microgravity) and in the 1g operation mode of the clino- stat in hypergravity on the Short-Arm Human Centrifuge (SAHC) as well as during parabolic flights. In addition to studies with isolated hemocytes, the effect of altered gravity conditions on whole animals was investigated. For this pur- pose, whole mussels were exposed to hypergravity (1.8 g) on a multi-sample incubator centrifuge (MuSIC) or to simu- lated microgravity in a submersed clinostat. After exposure for 48 h, hemocytes were taken from the mussels and ROS production was measured under 1 g conditions. The results from the parabolic flights and clinostat studies indicate that mussel hemocytes respond to altered gravity in a fast and reversible manner. Hemocytes (after cryo-conservation)exposed to simulated microgravity (μ g), as well as fresh hemocytes from clinorotated animals, showed a decrease in ROS production. Measurements during a permanent exposure of hemocytes to hypergravity (SAHC) show a decrease in ROS production. Hemocytes of mussels mea- sured after the centrifugation of whole mussels did not show an influence to the ROS response at all. Hypergravity dur- ing parabolic flights led to a decrease but also to an increase in ROS production in isolated hemocytes, whereas the cen- trifugation of whole mussels did not influence the ROS response at all. This study is a good example how ground- based facility experiments can be used to prepare for an upcoming ISS experiment, in this case the TRIPLE LUX B experiment.
Research Containing: Macrophage
The virulence antigen (V-antigen, LcrV) of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague, is an established protective antigen known to regulate, target, and mediate type III translocation of cytotoxic yersiniae outer proteins termed Yops; LcrV also prompts TLR2-dependent upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. In this study, we determined the parameters of specific interaction of LcrV with TLR2 expressed on human transfected HEK293 cells (TLR2+/CD14-), VTEC2.HS cells (TLR2+/CD14-), primary monocytes (TLR2+/CD14+), and THP-1 cells (TLR2+/CD14+). The IRRL314-317 motif of the extracellular domain of human and mouse TLR2 accounted for high-affinity binding of LcrV. The CD14 co-receptor did not influence this interaction. LcrV did not bind to human U937 (TLR2-/CD14-) and alveolar macrophages (TLR2-/CD14+) in the absence of receptor-bound human IFN-γ or a synthetic C-terminal fragment (hIFN-γ132-143). The latter, but not mouse IFN-γ (or synthetic control peptides), shared a GRRA138-141 site necessary for high-affinity specific binding. LcrV of Y. pestis shares the N-terminal LEEL32-35 binding site of Yersinia enterocolitica and also has an exposed internal DEEI203-206 binding site. Comparison of binding constants and consideration of steric restrictions indicate that binding is not cooperative and only the internal site binds LcrV to target cells. Both the LEEL32-35 and DEEI203-206 binding sites are removed by five amino acids from DKN residues associated with biological activity of bound LcrV. LcrV of Y. pestis promoted both TLR2/CD14-dependent and TLR2/CD14-independent amplification of IL-10 and concomitant downregulation of TNF-α in human target cells. The ability of LcrV to utilize human IFN-γ (a major inflammatory effector of innate immunity) to minimize inflammation is insidious and may account in part for the severe symptoms of plague in man.
DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF PROGENITORS OF ERYTHROCYTES (BFUE, CFU-E), GRANULOCYTES AND MACROPHAGES (GM-CFC) IN BONE-MARROW OF RATS AFTER A 14-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD THE COSMOS-2044 BIOSATELLITE
A decrease in the number of progenitors of erythrocytes (BFUe, CFUe) and of granulocytes and macrophages (GM-CFC) in bone marrow was found in rats exposed to microgravitation during a 14-day flight onboard the Cosmos-2044 biosatellite when compared to control rats maintained under conditions of gravitation on the ground. The number of progenitors of both lineages of haemopoiesis was also decreased in synchronous control rats, thus suggesting that the pool of progenitors is influenced also by the action of the nonspecific space flight factors.
<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1991FN07900005
The RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a diverse role in bacterial physiology beyond its original role as a host factor required for replication of Qbeta RNA bacteriophage. In this study, we show that Hfq is involved in the expression and secretion of virulence factors in the facultative intracellular pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium. A Salmonella hfq deletion strain is highly attenuated in mice after both oral and intraperitoneal infection, and shows a severe defect in invasion of epithelial cells and a growth defect in both epithelial cells and macrophages in vitro. Surprisingly, we find that these phenotypes are largely independent of the previously reported requirement of Hfq for expression of the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS. Our results implicate Hfq as a key regulator of multiple aspects of virulence including regulation of motility and outer membrane protein (OmpD) expression in addition to invasion and intracellular growth. These pleiotropic effects are suggested to involve a network of regulatory small non-coding RNAs, placing Hfq at the centre of post-transcriptional regulation of virulence gene expression in Salmonella. In addition, the hfq mutation appears to cause a chronic activation of the RpoE-mediated envelope stress response which is likely due to a misregulation of membrane protein expression.