The bone mineral density (BMD) of astronauts decreases specifically in the weight-bearing sites during spaceflight. It seems that osteoclasts would be affected by a change in gravity; however, the molecular mechanism involved remains unclear. Here, we show that the mineral density of the pharyngeal bone and teeth region of TRAP-GFP/Osterix-DsRed double transgenic medaka fish was decreased and that osteoclasts were activated when the fish were reared for 56 days at the international space station. In addition, electron microscopy observation revealed a low degree of roundness of mitochondria in osteoclasts. In the whole transcriptome analysis, fkbp5 and ddit4 genes were strongly up-regulated in the flight group. The fish were filmed for abnormal behavior; and, interestingly, the medaka tended to become motionless in the late stage of exposure. These results reveal impaired physiological function with a change in mechanical force under microgravity, which impairment was accompanied by osteoclast activation.