The Human Genome Project changed everything—or did it? Although un-deniably a scientific tour de force, the Genome Project’s outcome posed more questions than it answered, and molecular biology has been working assiduously ever since to answer those questions.
Research Containing: protein synthesis
Mechanical forces, including gravity, tension, compression, hydrostatic pressure, and fluid shear stress, play a vital role in human physiology and pathology. They particularly influence extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression, ECM protein synthesis, and production of inflammatory mediators of many load-sensitive adult cells such as fibroblasts, chondrocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the mechanical forces generated by cells themselves, known as cell traction forces (CTFs), also influence many biological processes such as wound healing, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Thus, the quantitative characterization of CTFs by qualities such as magnitude and distribution is useful for understanding physiological and pathological events at the tissue and organ levels. Recently, the effects of mechanical loads on embryonic and adult stem cells in terms of self-renewal, differentiation, and matrix protein expression have been investigated. While it seems certain that mechanical loads applied to stem cells regulate their self-renewal and induce controlled cell lineage differentiation, the detailed molecular signaling mechanisms responsible for these mechano-effects remain to be elucidated. Challenges in the fields of both adult- and stem-cell mechanobiology include devising novel experimental and theoretical methodologies to examine mechano-responses more closely to various forms of mechanical forces and mechanotransduction mechanisms of these cells in a more physiologically accurate setting. Such novel methodologies will lead to better understanding of various pathological diseases, their management, and translational applications in the ever expanding field of tissue engineering.
<Go to ISI>://WOS:000261281700007
Microsome-associated proteome modifications of Arabidopsis seedlings grown on board the International Space Station reveal the possible effect on plants of space stresses other than microgravity
Growing plants in space for using them in bioregenerative life support systems during long-term human spaceflights needs improvement of our knowledge in how plants can adapt to space growth conditions. In a previous study performed on board the International Space Station (GENARA A experiment STS-132) we evaluate the global changes that microgravity can exert on the membrane proteome of Arabidopsis seedlings. Here we report additional data from this space experiment, taking advantage of the availability in the EMCS of a centrifuge to evaluate the effects of cues other than microgravity on the relative distribution of membrane proteins. Among the 1484 membrane proteins quantified, 227 proteins displayed no abundance differences between micro g and 1 g in space, while their abundances significantly differed between 1 g in space and 1 g on ground. A majority of these proteins (176) were over-represented in space samples and mainly belong to families corresponding to protein synthesis, degradation, transport, lipid metabolism, or ribosomal proteins. In the remaining set of 51 proteins that were under-represented in membranes, aquaporins and chloroplastic proteins are majority. These sets of proteins clearly appear as indicators of plant physiological processes affected in space by stressful factors others than microgravity.