Described is the Liulin-5 active dosimetric telescope designed for measurement of the space radiation dose depth-distribution in a human phantom on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on ISS. The MATROSHKA-R project is aimed to study the depth- dose distribution at the sites of critical organs of the human body, using models of human body-anthropomorphic ant spherical tissue-equivalent phantoms. The aim of Liulin-5 experiment is a long term (4–5 years) investigation of the radiation environment dynamics inside the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, mounted in different compartments. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, and flux and dose rates for charged particles will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom by means of three silicon detectors. Data obtained together with data from other active and passive dosimeters will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, which verify the models of radiation environment in low Earth orbit. Presented are the test results of the prototype unit. Liulin-5 will be flown on the ISS in the year 2003.
Research Containing: Risk Assessment
The International Space Station (ISS) is becoming a reality with the docking of the Russian Service module (Zarya) with the Unity module (Zaveda). ISS will be in a nominal 51.65-degree inclination by 400 km orbit. This paper reviews the currently planned radiation measurements, which are in many instances, based on experiments previously flown on the Space Shuttle. Results to be expected based on Shuttle measurements are presented.
Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of long-term space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.