Bone constructs have been grown in vitro with use of isolated cells, biodegradable polymer scaffolds, and bioreactors. In our work, the relationships between the composition and mechanical properties of engineered bone constructs were studied by culturing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramic bovine bone scaffolds in different environments: static flasks and dynamic culture system in rotating vessels-which was a National Aeronautics and Space Administration-recommended, ground-based, microgravity-simulating system. After 15 days of cultivation, osteogenicity was determined according to DNA and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) analysis. DNA content and ALP were higher for cells grown on dynamic culture. Subsequently, the two kinds of engineered bone constructs were selected for transplantation into Sprague-Dawley rat cranial bone defects. After 24 weeks of in vivo implantation, the engineered bone constructs under dynamic culture were found to repair the defects better, with the engineered constructs showing histologically better bone connection. Thus, this dynamic system provides a useful in vitro model to construct the functional role and effects of osteogenesis in the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of BMSCs. These findings suggest that the hydrodynamic microgravity conditions in tissue-culture bioreactors can modulate the composition, morphology, and function of the engineered bone.