In the frame of the joint experiment BRADOS-1, absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer were assessed by means of 7LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) thermoluminescence detectors for different panels onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station in the timeframe between February and October 2001 (248 days). A technique is presented to correct the measured absorbed dose values for thermoluminescent efficiency in the radiation climate onboard the spacecraft. Average linear energy transfer is determined from the high-temperature thermoluminescence emission in the TLD-700 glowcurve and used as a parameter in the thermoluminescent-efficiency correction. Depending on the shielding distribution, the efficiency–corrected absorbed dose varies between 168(2) μGy/d in panel No. 318 (core block ceiling) and 249(4) μGy/d in panel No. 443 (starboard-side commander cabin). The experimental data are compared with model calculations using detailed shielding distributions and orbit parameters as input.
Research Containing: Space dosimetry
The Russian BRADOS experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was aimed at developing methods in radiation dosimetry and radiobiology to improve the reliability of risk estimates for the radiation environment in low-Earth orbit. Experimental data from thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) gathered during the BRADOS-1 (24 February–31 October 2001) mission are reviewed and convolved to obtain absorbed dose and dose equivalent from primary and secondary cosmic-ray particles. Absorbed dose rates in the ISS Russian Segment (Zvezda) ranged from 208 ± 14 to 275 ± 14 μ Gy d – 1 . Dose equivalent rates were determined to range from 438 ± 29 to 536 ± 32 μ Sv d – 1 , indicating a quality factor between 1.95 ± 0.15 and 2.11 ± 0.20 . The contribution of densely ionizing particles ( LET ⩾ 10 keV μ m – 1 ) to dose equivalent made up between 54% and 64%.
Cosmic ray detection on the ISS by a 3 axes track etch detector stack and the complementary calibration studies
The complex radiation field inside the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the dose received by its crew was studied for several years in the BRADOS ( 1 – 5 ) projects organized by the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP, Moscow) with the participation of different laboratories. The results of the measurements performed during the BRADOS-5 project by a 3 axes solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) stack as LET spectra and dose values are presented. According to the results, no remarkable directional dependence could be observed in the radiation field. The averaged absorbed dose rate and dose equivalent rate values above ∼ 12 keV μ m – 1 were 27.0 ± 1.6 μ Gy d – 1 and 211.4 ± 14.4 μ Sv d – 1 , respectively, resulting in an averaged quality factor of 7.9 ± 0.1 .
Study of radiation conditions onboard the International space station by means of the Liulin-5 dosimeter
For estimating radiation risk in space flights it is necessary to determine radiation dose obtained by critical organs of a human body. For this purpose the experiments with human body models are carried out onboard spacecraft. These models represent phantoms equipped with passive and active radiation detectors which measure dose distributions at places of location of critical organs. The dosimetric Liulin-5 telescope is manufactured with using three silicon detectors for studying radiation conditions in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom on the Russian segment of the International space station (ISS). The purpose of the experiment with Liulin-5 instrument is to study dynamics of the dose rate and particle flux in the phantom, as well as variations of radiation conditions on the ISS over long time intervals depending on a phase of the solar activity cycle, orbital parameters, and presence of solar energetic particles. The Liulin-5 dosimeter measures simultaneously the dose rate and fluxes of charged particles at three depths in the radial channel of the phantom, as well as the linear energy transfer. The paper presents the results of measurements of dose rate and particle fluxes caused by various radiation field components on the ISS during the period from June 2007 till December 2009.
Variation of absorbed doses onboard of ISS Russian Service Module as measured with passive detectors
Cosmic radiation represents possible risk for the astronauts. For estimation of the radiation onboard the spacecraft in space flights, it is necessary to obtain the data on dose distribution in real space flight conditions. This contribution deals with the study of absorbed dose and dose equivalent due to space radiation in different compartments of the International Space Station (ISS) using passive detectors. Luminescent detectors (LD) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module on ISS from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days); they were placed at SPD boxes and positioned at 6 various locations inside the Russian Service Module. LD were used to measure absorbed doses, particularly from low-LET particles and photons, PNTDs were used to measure the spectra of linear energy transfer (LET), absorbed dose, and dose equivalents from particles with LET∞H2O >5 keV/μm. Results from both types of detectors (LD and PNTD) were then combined together to obtain total values of absorbed doses and dose equivalents. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of registered particle fluxes, are presented as the function of position of SPD boxes (shielding thickness). Also the influence of position of detectors inside the SPD boxes (top and bottom wall) will be discussed. The dose characteristics depend on the location inside the Service Module; their variation has been observed to be up to factor of almost 2.
To estimate the radiation risk of spacecraft crew during the mission, it is necessary to measure dose distribution at various compartments, on and inside the human body that can be simulated using various phantoms. Due to some convenient characteristics (especially small weight and dimensions), passive detectors are used to measure dosimetric quantities onboard spacecraft. This contribution deals with the measurement of dosimetric characteristics and spectra of linear energy transfer (LET) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during two experiments with tissue-equivalent spherical Russian phantom MATROSHKA-R realized in years 2006 and 2008. To obtain LET spectra, total absorbed doses, and dose equivalents, we used combination of plastic nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescence detectors. The detectors were placed at various locations on the surface of the MATROSHKA-R phantom; some detectors were also inserted inside this phantom. The variation of dosimetric quantities obtained during both missions is discussed. The dose characteristics vary with the position of the detectors on or inside the phantom; the absorbed dose and dose equivalent can differ almost twice.