The development of space cardiology is considered, from the first flights of animals and humans to the studies conducted on board International Space Station (ISS). The material is recounted in four sections in accordance with the theoretical statements presented in the book “Space Cardiology” (1967). The first section is analysis of rearrangement of blood circulation under the conditions of microgravity. Long-term microgravity has been demonstrated to require mobilization of additional functional reserves of the body. During the first six months of the flight, the cardiovascular homeostasis is supported by the regulatory mechanisms of the blood circulation system, whereas in the case of a more prolonged impact of microgravity, intersystem control is actively involved (suprasegmental divisions of autonomic regulation). In the second section dealing with the roles of the right and left divisions of the heart in adaptation to microgravity of the cardiovascular system, the important role of the right heart at the initial stage of a space flight (SF) is emphasized. The third section addresses the problem of reducing the orthostatic stability; this study has been initiated as early as the first manned space flights. The results obtained on board ISS testify to the importance of evaluating the functional reserves of the blood circulation system. The fourth section presents data on the new methods of myocardial examination that are to be soon introduced into SF medical provision. In conclusion, some new projects in space cardiology are discussed.