Fire is a particularly critical danger in future extraterrestrial vehicles and habitats on long-range, long-duration missions since, unlike in most scenarios here on Earth, escape is not an option and the fire department will not be coming. In such vehicles and habitats, the first line defense lies in determining the ignitability and flammability of candidate materials under reduced and microgravity condition and at appropriate oxygen mole fractions and then using this information to help select materials to be used in these vehicles and habitats. If, despite our efforts to prevent a fire, one does occur, our next line of protection is fact and reliable detection of such occurrences (with minimum false positives) and definition of their location. After a fire and its location have been identified, we must have reliable means of extinguishing this fire as quickly as possible with as little impact to the mission and crew as possible. Finally, post-fire cleanup, toxicology of fire products and products of the interaction of the flame with the extinguishing, and virtual simulation training of the crew in fighting fires are also important areas which must be addressed by the research plan presented in this paper.