This paper reports the experimental results on the instability and associated roll structures (RSs) of Marangoni convection in liquid bridges formed under the microgravity environment on the International Space Station. The geometry of interest is high aspect ratio (AR = height/diameter ≥ 1.0) liquid bridges of high Prandtl number fluids (Pr = 67 and 207) suspended between coaxial disks heated differentially. The unsteady flow field and associated RSs were revealed with the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. It is found that the flow field after the onset of instability exhibits oscillations with azimuthal mode number m = 1 and associated RSs traveling in the axial direction. The RSs travel in the same direction as the surface flow (co-flow direction) for 1.00 ≤ AR ≤ 1.25 while they travel in the opposite direction (counter-flow direction) for AR ≥ 1.50, thus showing the change of traveling directions with AR. This traveling direction for AR ≥ 1.50 is reversed to the co-flow direction when the temperature difference between the disks is increased to the condition far beyond the critical one. This change of traveling directions is accompanied by the increase of the oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the RSs for AR ≥ 1.50, such as the azimuthal mode of oscillation, the dimensionless oscillation frequency, and the traveling direction, are in reasonable agreement with those of the previous sounding rocket experiment for AR = 2.50 and those of the linear stability analysis of an infinite liquid bridge.
Research Containing: suspensions
Embryonic stern cells (ESCs) can differentiate into all somatic cell types, but the development of effective strategies to direct ESC fate is dependent upon defining environmental parameters capable of influencing cell phenotype. ESCs are commonly differentiated via cell aggregates referred to as embryoid bodies (EBs), but Current culture methods, Such as hinging drop and static Suspension, yield relatively few or heterogeneous populations of EBs. Alternatively, rotary orbital suspension culture enhances EB formation efficiency, cell yield, and homogeneity without adversely affecting differentiation. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically examine the effects of hydrodynamic conditions created by rotary orbital shaking on EB firmation, structure, and differentiation. Mouse ESCs introduced to suspension culture at a range of rotary orbital speeds (20-60 rpm) exhibited variable EB formation sizes and yields due to differences in the kinetics of cell aggregation. Computational fluid dynamic analyses indicated that rotary orbital shaking generated relatively uniform and mild shear stresses (<= 2.5 dyn/cm(2)) within the regions EBs occupied in culture dishes, at each of the orbital speeds examined. The hydrodynamic conditions modulated EB Structure, indicated by differences in the cellular organization and morphology of the spheroids. Compared to static Culture, exposure to hydrodynamic conditions significantly altered the gene expression profile of EBs. Moreover, varying rotary orbital speeds differentially modulated the kinetic profile of gene expression and relative percentages of differentiated cell types. Over-all, this Study demonstrates that manipulation of hydrodynamic environments modulates ESC differentiation, thus providing a novel, scalable approach to integrate into the development of directed stem cell differentiation strategies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010;105: 611-626. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals
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