The ISS and the prior station Mir provided the proving ground for future human long-duration space activity. A recent European Space Agency study recommended “Measurement campaigns on the ISS form the ideal tool for experimental validation of radiation environment models, of transport code algorithms and reaction cross sections”. Indeed, prior measurements on Shuttle have provided vital information impacting both transport code and environmental model development. Recent studies using the ISS 7A configuration with TLD area monitors demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate anisotropic and dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree-of-freedom description of the ISS trajectory. The ISS model is now configured for 11A and uses an anisotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. The ISS 11A is instrumented with both passive and active dosimetric devices. Time resolved measurements have the advantage of isolating trapped proton and galactic cosmic ray components as was essential to transport code validation in Shuttle data analysis. ISS 11A model validation will begin with passive dosimetry as was used with ISS 7A. Directional dependent active measurements will play an important role in the validation of environmental model anisotropies.
Research Containing: Thermoluminescence
Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule
Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.
In the frame of the joint experiment BRADOS-1, absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer were assessed by means of 7LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) thermoluminescence detectors for different panels onboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station in the timeframe between February and October 2001 (248 days). A technique is presented to correct the measured absorbed dose values for thermoluminescent efficiency in the radiation climate onboard the spacecraft. Average linear energy transfer is determined from the high-temperature thermoluminescence emission in the TLD-700 glowcurve and used as a parameter in the thermoluminescent-efficiency correction. Depending on the shielding distribution, the efficiency–corrected absorbed dose varies between 168(2) μGy/d in panel No. 318 (core block ceiling) and 249(4) μGy/d in panel No. 443 (starboard-side commander cabin). The experimental data are compared with model calculations using detailed shielding distributions and orbit parameters as input.
The Russian BRADOS experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was aimed at developing methods in radiation dosimetry and radiobiology to improve the reliability of risk estimates for the radiation environment in low-Earth orbit. Experimental data from thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) gathered during the BRADOS-1 (24 February–31 October 2001) mission are reviewed and convolved to obtain absorbed dose and dose equivalent from primary and secondary cosmic-ray particles. Absorbed dose rates in the ISS Russian Segment (Zvezda) ranged from 208 ± 14 to 275 ± 14 μ Gy d – 1 . Dose equivalent rates were determined to range from 438 ± 29 to 536 ± 32 μ Sv d – 1 , indicating a quality factor between 1.95 ± 0.15 and 2.11 ± 0.20 . The contribution of densely ionizing particles ( LET ⩾ 10 keV μ m – 1 ) to dose equivalent made up between 54% and 64%.
A PAssive Dosimeter for Life-science Experiments in Space (PADLES) has been developed for measuring total absorbed dose and dose equivalents in the radiation environments of the International Space Station (ISS) where the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of radiation ranges from 0.2 (ionization minimum) to 103 keVμm−1 or more. PADLES consists of two types of passive and integrating radiation detectors: MSO-S (Mg2SiO4:Tb) ThermoLuminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and antioxidant-doped CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. In this paper, we first describe a method to obtain a water-equivalent absorbed dose by combining data from these two types of detector. In order to increase the reliability of PADLES for ISS space radiation dosimetry, we investigated the following characteristics of MSO-S TLDs: calibration of our ThermoLuminescence (TL) readout system for high-energy protons and gamma rays from 60Co and 137Cs sources; dose responses for high-energy heavy ions (He, C, Si, Ar, Fe); response variation of different manufacture batches; directional response for the high-energy protons; the initial variations and long-term fading effects of the TL response for high-energy protons and heavy ions at temperatures from −80 °C to 60 °C; and LET response.
DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace (DOBIES) with luminescence (OSL and TL) and track etch detectors
The objective of the “DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace” (DOBIES) project is to develop a standard dosimetric method as a combination of different techniques to estimate absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in biological samples in space experiments. The detectors investigated in the project include various types of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), such as LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, CaSO 4 :Dy, as well as Al 2 O 3 :C used as TLD and optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs), and track-etch detectors (TED). This paper describes the DOBIES project and reports preliminary results obtained during the BASE-A experiment carried out at the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2006. The results are compared to data from previous space exposures carried out by the members of the DOBIES project.