Bio-impedancemetiy was used to study dynamics of the human hydration status and body composition aboard the International space station (ISS). Body liquids in 12 Russian crewmembers were found reduced in different periods of space flight: the total, intra- and extracellular liquid volumes became less by 5.2 to 10.4% on the group average as compared with baseline values. In-flight changes in body composition also displayed a consistent pattern. While the lean mass loss was insignificant averaging 1.9-4.0%, the fatty mass gain averaged 4.6 to 8.2% in the initial three months on flight. We conclude that the human body hydration status falls along with the muscular mass reduction and fatty mass gain during long-duration space flight.