The ISS and the prior station Mir provided the proving ground for future human long-duration space activity. A recent European Space Agency study recommended “Measurement campaigns on the ISS form the ideal tool for experimental validation of radiation environment models, of transport code algorithms and reaction cross sections”. Indeed, prior measurements on Shuttle have provided vital information impacting both transport code and environmental model development. Recent studies using the ISS 7A configuration with TLD area monitors demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate anisotropic and dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree-of-freedom description of the ISS trajectory. The ISS model is now configured for 11A and uses an anisotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. The ISS 11A is instrumented with both passive and active dosimetric devices. Time resolved measurements have the advantage of isolating trapped proton and galactic cosmic ray components as was essential to transport code validation in Shuttle data analysis. ISS 11A model validation will begin with passive dosimetry as was used with ISS 7A. Directional dependent active measurements will play an important role in the validation of environmental model anisotropies.
Research Containing: TLD
Anisotropies in the low Earth orbit (LEO) radiation environment were found to influence the thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) dose within the (International Space Station) ISS 7A Service Module. Subsequently, anisotropic environmental models with improved dynamic time extrapolation have been developed including westward and northern drifts using AP8 Min & Max as estimates of the historic spatial distribution of trapped protons in the 1965 and 1970 era, respectively. In addition, a directional dependent geomagnetic cutoff model was derived for geomagnetic field configurations from the 1945 to 2020 time frame. A dynamic neutron albedo model based on our atmospheric radiation studies has likewise been required to explain LEO neutron measurements. The simultaneous measurements of dose and dose rate using four Liulin instruments at various locations in the US LAB and Node 1 has experimentally demonstrated anisotropic effects in ISS 6A and are used herein to evaluate the adequacy of these revised environmental models.
The image quality of high-definition television (HDTV) cameras and camcorders for space activity is degraded by the presence of permanent bright pixels (so-called “white defects”) due to space radiation. We studied the space radiation damage to HDTV charge-coupled devices (CCDs; 2 × 106 pixels per chip) loaded in the Russian service module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) for 71 days, 256 days and 446 days. We used the “Passive Dosimeter for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES), which consists of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) and thermoluminescent dosimeters, to measure space radiation doses received by the HDTV CCDs in the SM during loading periods. The average production rates of white defects for output voltage greater than 0.5 mV were 2.366 ± 0.055 pixels/day in Si and 5.213 ± 0.071 pixels/mGy in Si. We also investigated the correlation between the position of the white defects and tracks of high-energy particles with LET∞,Si of approximately 300 keV/μm or more using stacks of CR-39 PNTDs and the HDTV CCD chips. We found that approximately 30% of these high-energy high-LET particles coincided with the position of white defects on the HDTV CCDs in the SM.
The Russian BRADOS experiment onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was aimed at developing methods in radiation dosimetry and radiobiology to improve the reliability of risk estimates for the radiation environment in low-Earth orbit. Experimental data from thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) gathered during the BRADOS-1 (24 February–31 October 2001) mission are reviewed and convolved to obtain absorbed dose and dose equivalent from primary and secondary cosmic-ray particles. Absorbed dose rates in the ISS Russian Segment (Zvezda) ranged from 208 ± 14 to 275 ± 14 μ Gy d – 1 . Dose equivalent rates were determined to range from 438 ± 29 to 536 ± 32 μ Sv d – 1 , indicating a quality factor between 1.95 ± 0.15 and 2.11 ± 0.20 . The contribution of densely ionizing particles ( LET ⩾ 10 keV μ m – 1 ) to dose equivalent made up between 54% and 64%.
A PAssive Dosimeter for Life-science Experiments in Space (PADLES) has been developed for measuring total absorbed dose and dose equivalents in the radiation environments of the International Space Station (ISS) where the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of radiation ranges from 0.2 (ionization minimum) to 103 keVμm−1 or more. PADLES consists of two types of passive and integrating radiation detectors: MSO-S (Mg2SiO4:Tb) ThermoLuminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and antioxidant-doped CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. In this paper, we first describe a method to obtain a water-equivalent absorbed dose by combining data from these two types of detector. In order to increase the reliability of PADLES for ISS space radiation dosimetry, we investigated the following characteristics of MSO-S TLDs: calibration of our ThermoLuminescence (TL) readout system for high-energy protons and gamma rays from 60Co and 137Cs sources; dose responses for high-energy heavy ions (He, C, Si, Ar, Fe); response variation of different manufacture batches; directional response for the high-energy protons; the initial variations and long-term fading effects of the TL response for high-energy protons and heavy ions at temperatures from −80 °C to 60 °C; and LET response.
Area radiation monitoring on ISS Increments 17 to 22 using PADLES in the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo
The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is performing a continuous area radiation monitoring experiment using the “PAssive Dosimeters for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES) system inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo on board the International Space Station (ISS). The PADLES dosimeter consists of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). JAXA has run the Area PADLES experiment since the Kibo module was attached to the ISS in June 2008, using 17 dosimeters in fixed locations on the Pressurized Module (PM) and the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) of Kibo, which are replaced every 6 months or every Increment, respectively. For three monitoring periods, known as Area PADLES experiment series #1 to #3, of 301, 180, and 232 days in June 2008 to April 2010 over ISS Increments 17 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 12 positions in the PM of Kibo were 319 ± 30 μGy/day (618 ± 102 μSv/day), 276 ± 30 μGy/day (608 ± 94 μSv/day), and 293 ± 33 μGy/day (588 ± 84 μSv/day), respectively. The radiation measurement in the ELM-PS was conducted in only Area PADLES experiment series #3 from August 2009 to April 2010 (232 days) over ISS Increments 21 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 5 positions was 297 ± 28 μGy/day (661 ± 65 μSv/day). The directional dependence of the radiation field was also investigated by installing PADLES dosimeters located in the zenith of ELM-PS of Kibo.
Analysis of radiation dose variations measured by passive dosimeters onboard the International Space Station during the solar quiet period (2007–2008)
The average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from space radiation were observed using passive dosimeters with same material and configuration at the same location onboard the International Space Station (ISS) over four different occasions (I–IV) between 2007 and 2008. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). Total average absorbed dose rate increased by 68 ± 9% over two years. The observed increase was due to the incremental increase in the altitude of the ISS over the course of the experiment and the corresponding increase in trapped proton flux encountered during passage of the ISS through the SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly), which was confirmed with the results monitored by DB-8 active dosimeter on the ISS. The PNTD data showed that the average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from particles of LET∞H2O ≥ 100 keV/μm were 28 ± 2% and 51 ± 3% of ≥10 keV/μm during Periods I–III, while the dose contributions of particles ≥100 keV/μm during Period IV were 36 ± 5% and 59 ± 10%, respectively. The integral dose equivalent distribution during Period IV shows significant enhancement from particles ≥100 keV/μm. These facts suggest that a significant fraction of the high LET component is due to short-range recoil nuclei produced in target fragmentation reactions between primary protons and the nuclei of the passive dosimeters and surrounding materials.
DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace (DOBIES) with luminescence (OSL and TL) and track etch detectors
The objective of the “DOsimetry of BIological EXperiments in SPace” (DOBIES) project is to develop a standard dosimetric method as a combination of different techniques to estimate absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum in biological samples in space experiments. The detectors investigated in the project include various types of thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), such as LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P, CaSO 4 :Dy, as well as Al 2 O 3 :C used as TLD and optically stimulated luminescence detectors (OSLDs), and track-etch detectors (TED). This paper describes the DOBIES project and reports preliminary results obtained during the BASE-A experiment carried out at the International Space Station (ISS) in September, 2006. The results are compared to data from previous space exposures carried out by the members of the DOBIES project.
The experiment Dosimetric Mapping flown as part of the science program of NASA’s Human Research Facility (HRF) is designed to measure at different locations inside the U.S. Lab integrated total absorbed doses (ionizing radiation and neutrons) and heavy ion fluences and its energy, mass and linear transfer (LET) spectra; time dependent fluence rates of charted particles and their corresponding dose rate. This will be achieved by using five nuclear track detector packages (NTDPs) consisting of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors, two DOSimetry TELscopes (DOSTELs) using two passive implanted planar silicon detectors, four Mobile Dosimetry Units (MDUs) using one passive implanted planar silicon detector with an Control and Interface Unit (CIU)and an onboard TLD system consisting of a small weight TLD Reader and twelve TLD-bulbs, which can be reused after each measurement. Detectors are spread over the whole U.S. Lab. Data are transferred during the mission via the HRF Laptop to the ground. Dose rated of the ionizing part of the radiation field measured with TLD-bulbs at different locations vary between 123 µGy/d and 226 µG/d. DOSTEL measurements are presented for quiet times and during the Solar Particle Event (SPE) on April 15, 2001. The DOSTEL dose rate for quiet times for 194 µGy/d fits excellent to the TLD measurements. Weighted with the radiation quality factor received from measured LET spectra the dose equivalent rate arrives at 504 µSv/d.