Space radiation measurements were made on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Bulgarian Liulin-E094 instrument, which contains 4 Mobile Dosimetry Units (MDU), and the NASA ) during the time period May 11–July 26, 2001. In the time span 11–27 May 2001 four MDUs were placed at fixed locations: one unit (MDU #1) in the ISS “Unity” Node-1 and three (MDU #2–#4) units were located in the US Laboratory module. The MDTissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPCU #2 and the TEPC were located in the US Laboratory module Human Research Facility (rack #1, port side). In this paper we discuss the flight observed asymmetries in different detectors on the ascending and descending parts of the ISS orbits. The differences are described by the shielding differences generated by different geometry between the predominating eastward drifting protons and the orientation and placement of the MDUs within the ISS. Shielding distributions were generated for the combined ISS and detector shielding models. The AP8MAX and AE8MAX trapped radiation models were used to compute the daily absorbed dose for the five detectors and are compared with the flight measurements. In addition, the trapped proton incident spectra inside of ISS were calculated using calibration curve of MDU obtained during the tests with protons at the Louvain-la-Neuve cyclotron facility. The energy of incident spectra maximums were analyzed against L value for the individual passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly.
Research Containing: Space radiation dosimetry
A PAssive Dosimeter for Life-science Experiments in Space (PADLES) has been developed for measuring total absorbed dose and dose equivalents in the radiation environments of the International Space Station (ISS) where the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of radiation ranges from 0.2 (ionization minimum) to 103 keVμm−1 or more. PADLES consists of two types of passive and integrating radiation detectors: MSO-S (Mg2SiO4:Tb) ThermoLuminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and antioxidant-doped CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. In this paper, we first describe a method to obtain a water-equivalent absorbed dose by combining data from these two types of detector. In order to increase the reliability of PADLES for ISS space radiation dosimetry, we investigated the following characteristics of MSO-S TLDs: calibration of our ThermoLuminescence (TL) readout system for high-energy protons and gamma rays from 60Co and 137Cs sources; dose responses for high-energy heavy ions (He, C, Si, Ar, Fe); response variation of different manufacture batches; directional response for the high-energy protons; the initial variations and long-term fading effects of the TL response for high-energy protons and heavy ions at temperatures from −80 °C to 60 °C; and LET response.
Depth dose measurements with the Liulin-5 experiment inside the spherical phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station
The Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on the Russian segment of the ISS, which uses a tissue-equivalent spherical phantom equipped with a set of radiation detectors. The objective of the MATROSHKA-R project is to provide depth dose distribution of the radiation field inside the sphere in order to get more information on the distribution of dose in a human body. Liulin-5 is a charged particle telescope using three silicon detectors. It measures time resolved energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, particle flux, and absorbed doses of electrons, protons and heavy ions, simultaneously at three depths along the radius of the phantom. Measurements during the minimum of the solar activity in cycle 23 show that the average absorbed daily doses at 40 mm depth in the phantom are between 180 μGy/day and 220 μGy/day. The absorbed doses at 165 mm depth in the phantom decrease by a factor of 1.6–1.8 compared to the doses at 40 mm depth due to the self-shielding of the phantom from trapped protons. The average dose equivalent at 40 mm depth is 590 ± 32 μSV/day and the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) contribute at least 70% of the total dose equivalent at that depth. Shown is that due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) trapped protons asymmetry and the direction of Liulin-5 lowest shielding zone the dose rates on ascending and descending nodes in SAA are different. The data obtained are compared to data from other radiation detectors on ISS.
Area radiation monitoring on ISS Increments 17 to 22 using PADLES in the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo
The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is performing a continuous area radiation monitoring experiment using the “PAssive Dosimeters for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES) system inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo on board the International Space Station (ISS). The PADLES dosimeter consists of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). JAXA has run the Area PADLES experiment since the Kibo module was attached to the ISS in June 2008, using 17 dosimeters in fixed locations on the Pressurized Module (PM) and the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) of Kibo, which are replaced every 6 months or every Increment, respectively. For three monitoring periods, known as Area PADLES experiment series #1 to #3, of 301, 180, and 232 days in June 2008 to April 2010 over ISS Increments 17 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 12 positions in the PM of Kibo were 319 ± 30 μGy/day (618 ± 102 μSv/day), 276 ± 30 μGy/day (608 ± 94 μSv/day), and 293 ± 33 μGy/day (588 ± 84 μSv/day), respectively. The radiation measurement in the ELM-PS was conducted in only Area PADLES experiment series #3 from August 2009 to April 2010 (232 days) over ISS Increments 21 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 5 positions was 297 ± 28 μGy/day (661 ± 65 μSv/day). The directional dependence of the radiation field was also investigated by installing PADLES dosimeters located in the zenith of ELM-PS of Kibo.
Analysis of radiation dose variations measured by passive dosimeters onboard the International Space Station during the solar quiet period (2007–2008)
The average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from space radiation were observed using passive dosimeters with same material and configuration at the same location onboard the International Space Station (ISS) over four different occasions (I–IV) between 2007 and 2008. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). Total average absorbed dose rate increased by 68 ± 9% over two years. The observed increase was due to the incremental increase in the altitude of the ISS over the course of the experiment and the corresponding increase in trapped proton flux encountered during passage of the ISS through the SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly), which was confirmed with the results monitored by DB-8 active dosimeter on the ISS. The PNTD data showed that the average absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates from particles of LET∞H2O ≥ 100 keV/μm were 28 ± 2% and 51 ± 3% of ≥10 keV/μm during Periods I–III, while the dose contributions of particles ≥100 keV/μm during Period IV were 36 ± 5% and 59 ± 10%, respectively. The integral dose equivalent distribution during Period IV shows significant enhancement from particles ≥100 keV/μm. These facts suggest that a significant fraction of the high LET component is due to short-range recoil nuclei produced in target fragmentation reactions between primary protons and the nuclei of the passive dosimeters and surrounding materials.