Microgravity (MG) results in a reduction in bone formation. Bone formation involves osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in bone marrow. We modeled MG to determine its effects on osteogenesis of hMSCs and used activators or inhibitors of signaling factors to regulate osteogenic differentiation. Under osteogenic induction, MG reduced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and decreased the expression of osteoblast gene markers. The expression of Runx2 was also inhibited, whereas the expression of PPARgamma2 increased. MG also decreased phosphorylation of ERK, but increased phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580, a p38MAPK inhibitor, was able to inhibit the phosphorylation of p38MAPK, but did not reduce the expression of PPARgamma2. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) increased the expression of Runx2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) increased the phosphorylation of ERK, but did not significantly increase the expression of osteoblast gene markers. The combination of BMP, FGF2 and SB203580 significantly reversed the effect of MG on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our results suggest that modeled MG inhibits the osteogenic differentiation and increases the adipogenic differentiation of hMSCs through different signaling pathways. Therefore, the effect of MG on the differentiation of hMSCs could be reversed by the mediation of signaling pathways.